Even despite the widespread use of modern building materials, traditional brick remains in high demand. But we must take into account the peculiarities of its application. For certain types of masonry, specific blocks are generally needed.
General masonry principles
When preparing for the construction of brick walls with your own hands, one must show the same accuracy and responsibility that is characteristic of professional bricklayers. And the first step is always taking into account the specifics of the brick, its structure. The planes of this material have names that have developed in construction practice. These names are clearly fixed in the state standard. Thus, it is customary to refer to the largest side as “bed”, which in relation to the masonry can be located above or below.
"Bed" forms the so-called planes of the first category. The builders call a spoon an elongated vertical edge, which can fit inside or outside. A poke is a butt, often looking towards the opposite end or outward.
Only very rarely does it become necessary to lay the butt side in some other way. Having dealt with these points, you can proceed to the rules of laying (or, as experts call it, "cutting").
The lines along which the bricks are laid out necessarily go horizontally, while also mutually parallel. This rule is due to the fact that the brick tolerates compression well, but bending is bad for it. If the recommendation is violated, the bending moment can damage single bricks. Another basic principle: pokes and spoons lead at an angle of 90 degrees both to each other and in relation to the "bed".
The consequences of this rule are:
- strictly consistent geometry of individual bricks;
- uniform (correctly selected) seam thickness;
- lack of horizontal and vertical deviations in all rows.
Without observing the second principle, amateur builders can soon "enjoy" the sight of a cracking wall. And the third principle says: the mechanical load from each brick should be distributed at least over two adjacent blocks. In addition to three basic points, you need to pay attention to the thickness of the walls being erected. Its category is determined by dividing the actual width by the width of the pokes.
It is customary to highlight the following options (in meters):
- half a brick (0.12);
- brick (0.25);
- one and a half bricks (0.38 m);
- two bricks (0.51 m).
Sometimes masonry is used in two and a half bricks. The thickness of such walls is 0.64 m. Such structures are justified only when the highest security is needed. Even thicker walls are not used in residential construction, since they are too difficult and expensive to build. If the wall thickness is 1.5 bricks or more, the longitudinal joints between the adjacent stones are also taken into account in the calculations.
Varieties of bricks
In addition to the types of masonry, it is also important to know what these or those names of bricks mean. Solid ceramic bricks are used to construct particularly important structures. We are talking about buildings and their elements, which must be extremely stable and stable in all circumstances, regardless of the load. But due to the severity of solid bricks, it is used mainly in the construction of load-bearing walls. It is also impractical to use such blocks for decoration, for secondary elements - they are too heavy and excessively increase the load on the foundation.
In places where the level of mechanical stresses is less, and the requirements for thermal insulation are higher, hollow ceramic bricks are widely used. Usually, its bearing capacity is sufficient for the construction of the main walls, since in private housing construction, extreme loads are rarely found. Silicate brick can also be both hollow and solid, its areas of application are the same as those of the ceramic counterpart. But along with these two varieties, several other types have emerged over the past decades. Thanks to modern technology, you can still use hyper-pressed bricks.
The main component of this material is small fragments of rocks obtained by open cut from open pits. To make them a single whole, high-quality Portland cement is used. Depending on the processing methods and the intentions of the technologists, the hyper-pressed brick can be perfectly flat or resembling "torn stone". But the gradation in construction concerns not only the chemical composition and technology for producing bricks. It is customary to sort them by their intended purpose.
Construction brick, which is also an ordinary brick, is intended for the construction of capital walls. When using it, the subsequent finishing of the facade and measures for its special protection are required. Facing bricks, sometimes called facade bricks, are necessarily produced without the slightest defects. Chemically, it can be very different, including hyper-pressed, however, silicate lining is not used in places with high air humidity.
Regardless of the specific type, the bricks must have a “bed” length of 0.25 m, otherwise the simultaneous use of different types of blocks will be impossible.
Whatever brick the builders put, whatever the purpose of the building and the amount of work, special tools are definitely needed. Traditionally, a trowel is used: it is appreciated for its ease of grip and a precisely calculated angle. But both the trowel and all other tools used by masons belong to one of two groups. This is a working tool (which helps to erect the walls themselves, other structures) and is used for measurement, for control. When working, bricklayers use:
- pickaxe (special hammer);
- shovel (for operations with mortar).
To accurately measure lines, horizontals, verticals and planes, apply:
- plumb lines;
- folding meters;
- intermediate pendulums;
- corner orders;
- intermediate orders;
- special templates.
Types and methods
Having familiarized yourself with the varieties of tools used by masons, with the types of bricks, it is now important to see what the types of brickwork are.
And the first of them is the spoon row. This is the name of the strip of calculation, where the long sidewall is adjacent to the outer surface of the wall. In addition to spoon, butt rows should also be used - they look outward with the short side. In the interval between them is the so-called zabutka (additional bricks).
There are several subspecies of multi-row brick laying.
When they work back to back:
- with the right hand, using a trowel, level the bed;
- partially rake the solution;
- press it against the vertical edge of the newly laid brick;
- a new block is laid out on the left;
- putting a brick, pressed against a trowel;
- remove it;
- remove excess cement mixture.
Multi-row layout can be done in another way. Having tilted the brick a little, they collect the solution on the butt edge. This is done at 0.1-0.12 m from the previously laid out block. Moving the brick to its proper place, check the correctness of its installation and press it against the bed. Before final fixing, check that the mortar fills the entire seam.
The word "dressing" the masons do not mean the use of any knots, but the layout of the building stones. Inexperienced builders often ignore this point, believing that it is only necessary to correctly lay the bricks separately, "and the row will fold by itself." Chain, it is also single-row, dressing implies a strict alternation of butt and spoon rows. Such a technique guarantees the reliability and stability of the wall, but then it will not be possible to decorate it with decorative bricks from the outside.
Additional hardening is practiced in both multi-row and single-row layouts. It is used when creating:
- arched elements;
- door and window openings;
- other grooves and elements subject to increased stress.
Depending on the direction under which the mechanical action is applied, the reinforcement is performed vertically or horizontally. Reinforcing elements are introduced into the mortar when it has already set a little, but still retains its plasticity. It is very difficult to determine the dominant direction of the load.
Sometimes only professional engineers succeed in this, taking into account:
- seismic impacts;
- ground movements.
The severity of the brick forces builders to take care not only of the strength of the structure, but also of reducing its mass. Lightweight masonry implies that the outer wall will be laid out in half a brick. The inner layer is placed in 1 or 1.5 bricks. These structures are separated by a gap, which is calculated very carefully. Lightweight masonry, we note, is never performed according to a single-row scheme - it is done only in a multi-row way.
Strictly speaking, decorative masonry, in contrast to lightweight, is not some specific type. Often it is done according to the already mentioned "chain" scheme. But there is also an "English", aka "block" method - in this case, the butt and spoon rows change each other sequentially, and the joints are placed strictly along the vertical line. The "Flemish" type of decorative masonry means that the joints are moved back by 0.5 bricks. When choosing the "savage" option, you need to change pokes and spoons randomly.
But besides the listed types, there are also masonry options that deserve attention. Above, we have already mentioned briefly about the well layout of bricks. This is the name for three rows connected in a special way.
The outer wall is prepared using a pair of partitions, each of which is 0.5 bricks or less thick. Well structures are obtained by connecting partitions with brick bridges running horizontally or vertically.
Basically, traditional bricks are laid inside, and outside:
- ceramic stone;
- silicate blocks;
- expanded clay concrete.
The benefits of this method are associated with the savings in expensive building materials and with a decrease in the thermal conductivity of the walls. But we have to reckon with the decrease in strength and the penetration of cold air. Often, well masonry is improved by erecting walls with expanded clay insulation and other substances. If you need to further increase the strength of the wall, use concrete or slag. These heaters resist mechanical deformation well, but the slag can be saturated with moisture.
The brickwork of the sewer pits also has its own characteristics. Most often, red brick of increased strength is used for it. Corner blocks (beacons) are placed first and thoroughly aligned. In the absence of experience, it is advisable to control the level of all the bricks being laid. Trained bricklayers usually check themselves every 2 or 3 rows. Waterproofing is also required.
Regardless of where the brick wall is laid, you need to take special care of the design of the corners. It is they that cause the most difficulties for inexperienced and sloppy builders. Diagonals and right angles are verified along the cord. At the very beginning, a trial (without solution) calculation is required. It will allow you to accurately assess where additives are needed, how to arrange them correctly.
It is appropriate to complete the review of the types of masonry on the creation of brick stoves and fireplaces. They are made only from fire-resistant ceramic full-weight blocks. Products with voids inside are obviously unsuitable. It is best to build stoves using ready-made mixtures of clay and sand, which are sold in any specialty store. Ceramic bricks are soaked for 3 minutes before laying out, and refractory products are laid dry, except sometimes by rinsing and removing dust.
Safety during work
Any brickwork should be erected very carefully, in compliance with all safety precautions. Before starting construction, the tool is checked. The slightest defects and burrs are unacceptable both on the working parts and on the handles. Evaluate how the handles are inserted, whether they are firmly held in the designated place. These checks should be done at the beginning and end of each day, and when resuming work after any break.
Bricklayers should only work with gloves on. Particular attention is paid to the correct construction of the scaffolding and the reliability of the stairs. Putting tools and materials where they can obstruct the passage is prohibited. Forests are equipped with boards made of boards, and if it is necessary to direct cars along them, special rolling moves are prepared. Ladders that go up and down the scaffolding must have railings.
In the next video, you will find the types of brickwork and the features of its construction.