The evergreen muraya plant is extraordinarily beautiful and its fruits have exceptional health benefits. In an apartment, only two species out of ten can grow: muraya exotic and paniculate.
What it is?
Muraya was discovered in the 18th century by a Swedish scientist named Murray, who named the plant after his own name and made a description of it. In Russia, Muraya bears unofficial names: "Orange Jasmine", "Black Murka", "Red Murka" (depending on the color of the berries).
Muraya comes from Japan, India, Indonesia. In these countries, the tree has received the nickname "Japanese myrtle".
In ancient times, it was actively cultivated on the territory of the imperial residence in the Land of the Rising Sun, then muraya was considered a real exotic.
If a Japanese peasant dared to grow muraya in his garden, he faced the death penalty. Muraya's relatives are lemon and orange, and the plant does have a citrus scent. Most often, miniature varieties of murayi are used at home.
After planting, the plant takes a long time to master, the root system adapts to new conditions. Then rapid growth begins: each year the branches will grow a few centimeters. The harvest of berries appears twice a year, at the ends of the branches white "panicles" are formed, then in their place in a month you can see the fruits of red or black color.
One berry of the plant contains two seeds. The fruits have many useful properties: they relieve fatigue, increase efficiency, strengthen the body's resistant resources. It is recommended to consume the fruit for people who suffer from:
- heart failure;
- ischemia of the heart;
- diabetes mellitus.
The berries ripen for 120 days. Fruit seeds contain toxins and are not recommended to be consumed. The shops sell varieties that are most often produced in Holland.
Only a few varieties are cultivated at home.
- Muraya paniculata (exotic) - reaches a height of one and a half meters.
- Minima - in height it can reach no more than half a meter.
- Min-a-min - grows up to one meter, leaves up to 2 cm in size.
- Dwarf Compact is a dwarf variety that can grow up to 16 cm.
- Muraya Koeniga, which has a second name - "Curry tree". The inflorescences are beige or cream in color, the berries are of black color. It begins to bloom in the third year of its existence.
In Russia, the dwarf species is most popular; it can bloom even in cool weather. Fruits by self-pollination, fruits ripen in 70-90 days.
Muraya has an unpredictable character: it can grow up to a meter in height and not bloom, and, conversely, reach a height of 35 cm, and be covered with flowers from the top to the ground. The optimum temperature for growth is + 25 ° C, the plant is afraid of cold drafts, but loves an abundance of light.
It does not tolerate direct sunlight well, but if the plant is planted in a well-lit area, then it is no longer afraid of hard ultraviolet radiation.
In winter, you must definitely use additional lighting. In a tight container, the tree blooms better, it is noteworthy that the appearance of flowers in the warm season occurs continuously.
One flower lives no more than four days, but new inflorescences constantly appear. Muraya is self-pollinated, fruits appear within a short time.
Muraya Koeniga black-fruited is an evergreen plant, the leaves have a pleasant smell, curry is made of them. It does not grow very well at home. The leaves are elongated, up to 9 cm long, there can be up to two dozen of them, similar in shape to the feathers of birds. At the initial stage, the plant develops extremely slowly, the buds ripen in a couple of weeks, the fruits are large and tasty. Koenig is the most aromatic variety.
Muraya paniculata (paniculata) has leaves up to 12 cm long (5-6 cm wide), on each branch there are up to 14 pieces. The leaves are in the shape of an elongated ellipse, they are dense and shiny. It is the closest relative of lemons and oranges. Possesses a number of unique healing properties. It is extremely easy to grow paniculata, you do not even need to be vaccinated. The flowers are white or beige, the fruits are bright scarlet. Blooms after five years of life. To grow such a variety, it is enough to sow seeds or cuttings in moist soil.
At home, the standard size of a tree reaches a third of a meter, the trunk and branches are covered with light gray bark (sometimes it is yellow).
In terms of flexibility, paniculata is comparable to willow, it has the same elastic thin branches that bend easily. It grows quickly, actively developing in breadth. The branches need to be tied up so that they do not break. In the cold season, the paniculate container is rearranged away from the windows, and also periodically turn on bright lamps. Pollination is not needed to set the berries. The berries come in a variety of shades, from orange to deep blue.
Dutch muraya (Dutch) blooms quite rarely at home. If a similar phenomenon occurs, then only at 7-8 years of age. The explanation is simple: in Holland, where the specimens come from, the seedlings are fed with various chemical compounds and stimulants.
It is not always rational to buy such imported products; on the market you can find muraya seeds, which will bloom in 4-5 months, yielding healthy fruits.
The Dutch woman compares favorably with her aesthetic appearance, and for this she is appreciated in Russia. There are also other positive qualities:
- unpretentiousness and endurance;
- leaves of the correct beautiful shape;
- easy to care for (even a novice gardener can handle it);
- tolerates dry times and high temperatures without problems.
- grows slowly;
- sparse bush;
- it reproduces extremely "reluctantly".
How to grow?
The houseplant Muraya blooms continuously, therefore it requires constant watering at strictly allotted hours. Excessive watering can lead to rotting of the root system. If water remains in the pan, then this is bad, which means that there is an excess of moisture.
Muraya is not afraid of high humidity in the room, she develops well in such conditions. If the air in the room is too dry, then the plant must be sprayed with a spray bottle.
Leaves are sensitive to lack of moisture - if they dry out, the plant will disappear. It is recommended to wipe the leaves several times a month with a cloth soaked in water.
Water for irrigation must necessarily settle for 3-4 days, chlorine must completely evaporate from it. In the warm season, it is watered with a watering can or a warm shower - the plant is picky and loves such "bathing".
It is best to feed when the individuals are adults and the growing season begins. Overfeeding the "pet" is not recommended, the result may be the opposite of the desired one.
A clear indicator of a lack of nutrients is the appearance of yellow leaves, while the berries on the branches also do not hold, they fall to the ground.
It is not possible to force them to stick to the branches or somehow restore them.
There are special formulations "Emerald" or "Growth" - they can effectively help in restoring normal metabolism. Feeding can be done both for lemons, oranges, and for muraya, the composition is almost the same. Such a top dressing as "Flower Happiness" is also well suited for a plant; one should not disdain ordinary complex fertilizers. Be sure to remove young shoots, while leaving the "supporting structures" - the branches that form the frame.
It is recommended to transplant young plants every year in the warm season (March-April), such operations cannot be performed in winter. The root system gains strength over time, increases in volume, so a transplant should be done without fail. It should be remembered that too large a capacity for a plant is contraindicated, therefore the optimal choice of a pot for a crop is a very important question.
It is recommended to calculate everything in such a way that by the time of transplanting the root system would occupy all the free space.
If the plant has already grown and matured (after three years), then a transplant can be done every 3-4 years. It is necessary that the earthen lump be preserved during the transplantation, at the same time a drainage four centimeters thick is put on the bottom of the hole, then soil is poured on top, and only then the rhizome of the plant is placed. The flower is watered with warm, settled water. If muraya was purchased to be used as a remedy, then only old leaves should be removed, then the development will be more harmonious. It is important to understand at the very beginning whether muraya will be "medicine" or "decoration".
The crop can withstand pruning without any complications ; it should be done periodically so that the muraya experiences minimal stress. Correct pruning generates crown development and becomes denser. It is recommended to remember that murayas do not require frequent pruning. The plant can easily tolerate such operations, but extra resources for the development of a young culture will never interfere. On young bushes, it is recommended to pinch (the upper part, where the buds will be) before flowering.
The pinching should be repeated until the tree has gained the necessary mass. It is important that it reaches the desired height.
It is recommended for medicinal purposes to brew leaves and buds, drink tea with them, it is good for health.
Planting a muraya is a responsible business, you should prepare for it, observing all the rules. Muraya develops best in slightly acidic soil. If you cook it yourself, then leaf humus and a baking powder (vermiculite) must be present. Before pouring the earth into the container, it should be disinfected by baking it in the oven. Sometimes the most rational solution is to buy ready-made soil in a specialized store.
Soil with peat and sand is also well suited. Typically, a similar composition is used for planting citrus fruits. Growing a tree from seed will make it more viable. Before planting, the seeds are poured onto the ground, then pressed a little (5 mm is enough). The landing site is covered with a film so that the muraya does not freeze. The temperature should be between 24-32 degrees Celsius.
When the lighting is insufficient, additional lighting is provided. If done correctly, then three weeks (possibly even earlier) is enough for the seeds to germinate. After that, the film must be removed so that the seedlings are blown with air and get used to the external environment.
In order for the muraya to bloom beautifully, the seedlings periodically need to be sprayed with water from a spray bottle. With the appearance of leaves, the culture must be transplanted; a pick is not necessary in this case. The first buds may appear in 3-4 months.
As for cuttings, caring for them takes more time , and this method is not as reliable as germination from seeds.
Shoots should be chosen those on which there are no buds; they are quite suitable for grafting.
The lower cut is processed with a special composition "Kornevin", after which it is placed in a small container with settled water. It can also be planted directly into prepared soil. The temperature should be 24-32 degrees, for this the sprouts are covered. After six weeks, the first stalks will turn green on the soil surface - this means that the root system has begun to develop. The film should be removed periodically so that the plants are blown with warm air.
Muraya resists well any pests, fungus and mold. To do this, only one important condition should be observed - watering at the set time. The water must be defended, otherwise the culture will get sick with chlorosis.
Excessive watering leads to root system disease, the plant can get sick with root rot or powdery mildew.
From chlorosis well to chelate iron, but it is recommended to start to defend water from the aqueduct. Rot and fungi are treated with fungicides, but if the plant is too neglected, it is better to throw it away.
The most dangerous pests for muraya are spider mites, scale insects and aphids. When the muraya gets sick, the leaves dry, then the plant discards them altogether. Infusion of garlic in this case is a good preventive measure. The composition is prepared in the following proportion: 45 grams of garlic, crushed in a mortar, are dissolved in a glass of water. You can add chopped onions and make a tincture too. In addition, a soap solution will be an excellent medicine.
It is important in this matter not to overdo it with concentration, so as not to harm the plant itself.
The red tick is also very dangerous ; it can be removed by using insecticides. The folk remedy is just as effective, for it you will need:
- birch tar - 2 parts;
- laundry soap - 3 parts;
- water - 3 parts.
The mixture is thoroughly mixed, then applied with a brush. It is recommended to do the operation every week, at least three times.
It is good to use a solution against aphids , in which wood ash and diluted laundry soap are present. The shield is most afraid of kerosene.
However, to process a plant with kerosene, you must have some experience, otherwise it can be easily damaged.
An effective remedy will also be a solution in which a mixture of soap and machine oil is present. To create an effective composition, you will need only 12 grams of soap and 25 grams of machine oil. The mixture is dissolved in a liter of water and mixed thoroughly. Then you can process the muraya bush. After ten days, the procedure will need to be repeated. As for aphids, they are afraid of tobacco and onion infusion (45 grams per liter of water).
If the muraye lacks lighting, then the leaves begin to fall off. A similar phenomenon can be triggered by a sharp drop in temperature. It is recommended to place the plant in a warmer and well-lit area. The culture may not bloom for a long time, because it requires feeding - the growth of the plant slows down if it lacks useful components.
Muraya can be propagated in two ways: by seeds and cuttings.
You can buy seed in specialized flower shops. The necessary seeds can be stored directly in the berries, nothing will happen to it. However, you should not delay sowing so that the seeds do not lose their germination.
The peeled seeds are washed in a colander, then put in a glass with fungicide for a couple of hours. Then they are washed again, while the green seeds have the best germination.
Before planting seeds, it is recommended to germinate them, this is a prerequisite. They should lie warm (up to 28 degrees) on a damp cotton cloth.
The seeds are immersed in the ground to a shallow depth (up to one centimeter), watered abundantly. Upon reaching the height of the growth of 4-5 cm, the film should be removed from the container so that the seedlings breathe fully. When young plants grow up to 10 cm, it is safe to say that the seedlings are fully grown. It takes at least four weeks for a seed to germinate, and three leaves should appear in the end. Then a pick is made and landing in various containers. The second option is simpler: the seeds are planted immediately in a separate pot.
Cuttings are harvested in early March - the tops of the plants are cut off. Long leaves are cut in half. The substrate is made from sand and peat (50/50). Instead of peat, humus is often taken from the leaves. For soil, it is also appropriate to use:
- peat tablets;
The stalk is left warm, covered with PVC film.
It should be ventilated every day, the soil temperature should be within 25-32 degrees. After rooting, the plants are transplanted into containers.
A transplant can happen only after a year, the metabolism in the first phase of muraya development is slowed down. The base of the stem at the root should not be immersed too deeply into the soil; this rule must be followed without fail. Top dressing (every two weeks) can be both organic and mineral, it is best to alternate the compositions.
Consider some additional tips for growing murayi at home.
- If the plant loses leaves , this means that there is a lack of light, you should turn on additional lighting or move the container to another windowsill.
- If the leaves turn yellow, the room temperature is too low, it should be adjusted. It may be that watering was disturbed, the water did not settle, and chlorine remained in it. It is possible that there is too much moisture in the soil.
- When a plant becomes sick with rot , it is removed from the soil, and the spoiled shoots are cut off with scissors. The container will need to be boiled. When returning the plant to its place, do not forget to completely renew the soil.
- In excessively dry air, the tips of the leaves begin to dry out. You should increase the humidity of the air, one of the options is to spray the leaves twice a day, you can also use humidifiers.
- For the prevention and treatment of the initial stages of diseases, muraya is best sprayed with soapy water.
- Before planting, the soil must be impregnated with potassium permanganate or calcined in the oven.
- Orchid soil mix (often sold in stores) is also good for growing crops.
- In March, the shoots are cut off by forty percent, the branches that have thickened the crown too much are removed.
For information on how to keep muraya at home, see below.