Originally, fireplaces had one function: to heat the house. Over time, their structure and appearance have changed. In modern society, the opinion has formed that fireplaces are more likely an element of luxury than a heating system. However, with its help in a house or apartment, you can create a feeling of warmth and comfort, especially since the market offers various models - from huge street ones to miniature ones.
Most often, a home fireplace is designed to heat the house.
The standard model has four main elements:
- facade or portal, which is most often designed in the form of the letter "P";
- a furnace in which fuel is burned;
- a special chamber located above the firebox, the functional duties of which are to transfer smoke into the chimney. It is called a smoke box;
- chimney, which must provide draft and smoke extraction.
If the fireplace is outdoor, then it also performs the function of a stove, barbecue, stove or smokehouse. Therefore, several more design features are added to the indicated elements.
Scope of application
Initially, the fireplace served only one function - heating. Now the scope of their application is extensive.
Most often, fundamental large structures are used as a heating system in private houses. In this case, the fireplace serves as a source of thermal energy, which is transmitted to all rooms through a closed water circuit.
Small models are used to heat apartments, attics, verandas, loggias or closed balconies.
Outdoor types of fireplaces made in the style of "hearth", barbecue or barbecue are in demand.
Fireplace designs with the function of a stove fell in love with summer residents and residents of country cottages.
Designers everywhere use false fireplaces and biofireplaces in any interior style.
Manufacturers offer a wide range of models that are classified according to different parameters.
- For heating . The main function of the fireplace is to heat the room. Usually in a private house or cottage, the owners do not depend on the central heating system, therefore they have the opportunity to install their own. Since the fireplace can become the core of the heating circuit, and also serves as a wonderful element of the interior, its installation is in demand.
- Partial heating . It is problematic to install a real fireplace in modern apartments, its variations are more often used. On cold winter evenings, they can work for heating, and in the absence of the need for heating, they can only perform decorative functions. For example, electric fireplaces or pellet installations are appropriate for use on a closed balcony or loggia.
- With cooking function . Street models are a great example.
- Country BBQ fireplaces are becoming the most popular . The hearth, as a rule, is not associated with residential buildings, it is built on a separate dedicated site under a canopy. The design is necessarily equipped with a stove and grill. Often, a fireplace space includes a sink, a butcher table, shelves, and storage niches. An outdoor fireplace has the main difference from indoor models: chimneys are not closed by flaps.
Indoor models are in demand in the kitchen.
- The fireplace stove is designed to perform two functions: heating and cooking in the oven. As a rule, the product is equipped with two fireboxes and, accordingly, a pair of chimneys. In this regard, they can be used both together and separately. The system works on firewood or briquettes of sawdust, so the place nearby is often equipped with a stove bench. The garden version of the fireplace stove is especially in demand.
- Decorative structures are used to decorate the interior. With their help, designers set accents. A fireplace can represent luxury and pomp or comfort and serenity. It is typical for many styles and is made from different materials. Specialists in interior design use not only real heating options in the form of bio and electric fireplaces, but also false fireplaces.
By fuel type
Wood burning fireplaces
The most ancient of all existing options. Refractory bricks are used for their construction. Less common are options from ceramic blocks or cast iron. The portal and chimney are faced with different types of finishes: natural or artificial stone, brick, ceramic tiles, wooden plates.
The design of the fireplace is quite complex and has a number of subtleties that should be considered during the construction phase and during further operation:
- the installation technology does not allow placing such models in city apartments;
- it is better to take into account the presence of a fireplace at the design stage of the house, since later it will be difficult to fit it into the finished interior;
- construction takes a long time;
- pre-operational preparation is a lengthy process associated with complete drying of the entire structure;
- the chimney should be laid out by a qualified craftsman, because if an error occurs, the fireplace may start to smoke inside the room. A properly assembled structure will provide good stable traction. If the chimney is too long, then the wood will burn out quickly, with a short air flow will be weak and the smoke will partially go into the room;
- the pipe must be regularly cleaned during operation;
- the space around the fireplace must be protected from fire, since live fire can bring unexpected surprises;
- experts advise to provide a protective flap for the firebox to prevent the scattering of burning coals.
Even with many disadvantages, wood-burning designs remain popular. The warmth from a live fire and the quiet crackling of wood create a cozy home atmosphere.
Peat and coal
The device is similar to wood-burning models, but there are some peculiarities when using. Peat is placed in the firebox with a layer of at least 20 cm, and coal is not more than 15 cm. For kindling coal fuel, chips, paper, and ignition are used. During combustion, a large amount of ash is formed, therefore the grate must be constantly cleaned.
For even combustion, an air supply is needed, especially for coal . To do this, it is recommended not to close the blower door completely when firing up.
Methane or propane-butane are used as fuel. During combustion, solid combustion wastes and soot are not formed, this makes it possible to exclude from the design the ash collector, grate and narrow the diameter of the chimney. The gas burner is located inside the firebox. Its regulation can be carried out both in manual mode and automatically. Modern technologies make it possible to equip the entire system with monitoring sensors that will be responsible for the supply and shutdown of gas, traction and safety.
Experts note that due to the possibility of condensate formation, it is better to insulate the chimney and be made of stainless steel. The forms and types of placement of gas structures can be any. The live fire effect is achieved with special accessories such as ceramic wood.
The main advantage over wood and electric is the cost - it is lower. Also, the pluses include: noiselessness, absence of sparks, controlled fire force, low level of emissions of harmful substances, simplicity of design, possibility of automation, mobility.
Disadvantages of gas-type fireplaces are also present:
- availability of gas in the form of a gas pipeline or cylinders that need to be purchased;
- independent installation is not possible, to work with gas you need a certified specialist who has a permit for this;
- for the placement of gas equipment associated with the heating circuit, a permit from the regulatory authorities is required;
- gas is an explosive fuel, therefore it requires careful attention;
- low energy efficiency.
Such models are usually made of cast iron or heat-resistant steel; ceramic or glass plates are used as finishing. Pellets are compressed granules, raw materials for which are any combustible waste.
The advantages of this type of fireplace are the following factors:
- The work process is almost completely automated. The heater allows you to maintain an optimal temperature regime.
- The small size allows the device to be used in any environment.
- The fuel is environmentally friendly.
- High energy efficiency. The efficiency of pellet fireplaces reaches 90%.
It is worth noting the disadvantages:
- Automation and electronic filling are complex. They require competent service.
- Fireplaces are mains powered. They are not designed to burn any other type of fuel.
- More expensive than wood-based counterparts.
The models are powered by the mains. Due to the absence of the need to burn fuel, the design has been simplified, it has become easier to care for the fireplace during operation. Now it is possible to install electric ovens in any premises, including apartments.
Experts point out a number of advantages over wood and gas fireplaces:
- low cost;
- ease of installation and further operation;
- the presence of several heating modes;
- environmental friendliness and the ability to create the effect of a live fire without burning fuel;
- no need for the construction of a special chimney or other devices for the removal of combustion products;
- remote control and the presence of a thermostat, in addition, you can adjust air filtration, which has a beneficial effect on allergy sufferers;
- the degree of fire safety is comparable to any electrical household appliance.
Today, manufacturers offer a huge selection of electric fireplaces. However, it should be noted that the product rather plays a decorative role, and also partly serves as a heating device. With all the advantages described, an electric fireplace is just an imitation.
A bio or eco - fireplace is a wonderful invention that allows you to enjoy the sight of a real fire in the absence of smoke and soot. The fuel is bioethanol, which is poured into burners made of metal. Since combustion products are safe for humans, chimneys are not required. The heat transfer from biofireplaces is excellent, but most often they are used as an element of interior decor in modern modern or high-tech styles.
When choosing an eco-fireplace, it is recommended to consider the following:
- like any product that uses a real fire, the design requires certain fire safety measures;
- design features depend only on the designer's idea;
- there is not enough power to heat the entire room.
- Big ones . Oversized fireplaces are designed to generate large amounts of heat energy. Therefore, it is advisable to install them in private houses with high ceilings, as well as additionally providing the core function of the entire heating system. Large-sized designs on the street are appropriate. In this case, they represent whole architectural compositions: barbecue areas or barbecues.
- Small . Miniature models give little heat, so they are most often a decorative element of the interior.
By material type
- Brick . For the construction of the furnace, special refractory bricks are used. The exterior is finished with ceramic facing material. It is important that the brick for facing is not hollow, since it is he who accumulates and gives off heat. The voids will cause its rapid destruction. It is forbidden to use silicate material, as harmful substances are released when heated.
- Natural or artificial stone . Natural material tolerates temperature changes well and does not emit toxins. There is only one significant drawback - high cost. It should be understood that during construction one cannot do without refractory bricks for the furnace. The stone is used only for facing.
- Cast iron is used as a material for the furnace . It can withstand heating temperatures up to 600 degrees. Experts distinguish two significant drawbacks - fragility and high coefficient of thermal expansion, which causes an increase in size when heated by up to 3 centimeters. Suitable for intermittent use, because it heats up quickly and does not corrode.
- Steel is similar in performance to cast iron . The difference is higher plasticity and the possibility of repair.
- In most cases, ceramics serves as a facing material for all types of fireplaces. It is heat-resistant, has high heat transfer and long service life. Modern processing methods make it possible to obtain ceramic bricks, plates and other forms of decoration.
- Drywall is a material for the construction of false fireplaces.
For facing fireplaces, they use stucco elements, plaster, ceramic tiles or tiles, as well as other decorative materials.
- outdoor fireplaces are installed outdoors;
- internal structures are an element of the interior.
If possible, move
- Mobile . It is possible to move the fireplace from one room to another. These are usually small structures.
- Stationary models have a permanent foundation and are impressive in size.
By location type
- Wall-mounted fireplace designs are the most common models. The peculiarity lies in the location against the wall, for which heat-resistant ceilings should be erected. At the wall surface there is only the rear part of the fireplace, the body protrudes completely. One of the advantages is the possibility of its construction in finished interiors.
- Corner models take up less space than wall models because they are built into the corner. When decorating, you can create the effect of a built-in fireplace, or you can hide only the chimney under the casing.
- Built - in models significantly save space in the room, since the structure is almost completely hidden inside the wall. It is better to start their design at the stage of building a house, otherwise you will have to disassemble the floors. Models can have different shapes from classic rectangular to round. Designers offer an unusual double-sided fireplace. It is built into the partition between rooms so that it can be seen in both rooms.
- Island fireplaces differ from other options with an unusual design, but in terms of heat transfer they are significantly lower. The free-standing structure includes a platform made of heat-resistant material, on which, in fact, the fire burns. A smoke collector and a chimney are installed above it. The dimensions of the system are rather big, so it should be taken into account before installation. One of the varieties of island fireplaces are wall-mounted models that hang above the floor on the chimney. Experts advise not to neglect fire safety measures and enclose the fire source from all sides with glass.
By the principle of work
- Open . Heat is obtained from a burning fire. There is a great loss of energy.
- Convection . The design includes a special convector-fan, which allows you to distribute heat energy over the entire area of the room.
- A cumulative fireplace accumulates heat and releases it gradually. To do this, use special furnace channels or cumulative bell mass from fireclay circles. It accumulates thermal energy in itself and radiates it into the surrounding space not immediately, but within several hours.
- The combined version combines several types of energy production and distribution.
By type of fireplace insert
- Open type . The furnace space is open from the front. Such options require compliance with fire safety measures. Since these furnaces require additional oxygen, a good thrust must be ensured. The efficiency of open fireplaces barely reaches 15%.
- Closed type . The fireplaces are presented in models with a heat exchanger closed by heat-resistant glass or a door, which increases energy efficiency up to 75%.
By type of chimney
- Chimneys for fireplaces are built of bricks , the fuel for which is solid: wood, coal, peat.
- Stainless steel . The stainless steel chimney design is usually type-setting, requires insulation. It comes in different sections and lengths. Among the advantages should be noted lightness, low cost, ease of installation and repair of individual parts. The part of the chimney located inside the room must be insulated and hidden in a casing to ensure an aesthetically pleasing appearance.
- Using ceramics . The ceramic pipe is located inside the box and requires thermal insulation. It is characterized by a long service life, the ability to create various forms of the chimney, simplicity and a small amount of time for assembly, high efficiency, the presence of holes for preventive cleaning. The disadvantage is the high cost.
- The coaxial chimney is suitable for the construction of gas fireplaces. The system consists of two pipes, one inside the other. The first one discharges the combustion products, the second one ensures the flow of air.
Types of structures
Depending on how the heat is radiated, fireplaces are divided into the following types:
A one-sided hearth is the simplest design that is most widespread. It implies the escape of heat from the firebox to the outside through the main fireplace window. The sloped inner walls ensure maximum heat dissipation.
The double-sided fireplace has two exit portals. These include corner and island models, in which two adjacent or opposite sides of the firebox are transparent. Wall-mounted options of this type are rarely produced.
Experts pay attention that when choosing an original fireplace, one should take into account its disadvantages:
- The fuel in it burns out faster, therefore, its consumption will increase. This also determines the need for more draft in the chimney.
- The energy efficiency is lower than one-sided because there are fewer internal reflective surfaces.
- The fire hazardous area in front of the fireplace increases, which must be protected from falling out coals.
The three-sided fireplace is more decorative. From the outside, the design resembles an aquarium, since there is only one internal reflective surface, the rest are transparent.
The disadvantages of double-sided fireplaces in this case are more pronounced:
- thermal insulation of the floor is necessary on three sides;
- low energy efficiency.
The heat supply is carried out in three directions, however, the main outlet is the central one, located opposite the internally reflecting wall.
For the construction of a real stationary fireplace, the following materials are used:
- foundation - rubble stone, red brick, concrete mix (crushed stone, sand, broken brick, cement), reinforcing mesh;
- firebox - fireclay refractory bricks, cast iron or heat-resistant steel;
- chimney and insulating box around the firebox - brick, foam block, gas block, concrete slabs.
The service life of the fireplace depends on their choice. The most durable are red or refractory bricks, granite or marble, sandstone.
Experts pay attention that when choosing a brick, it is necessary to check each for the absence of cracks , chips and internal cavities. Each of them should be full-bodied, of high quality, of a uniform orange-red color, and when struck, produce a clear sonorous sound.
If a refractory option was chosen for the construction, then the clay must correspond to it. As a rule, cement mortar is used for the bond, to which ordinary red clay is added. Professionals consider the blue Cambrian the best , but it is more expensive.
If the masonry was carried out with high-quality bricks, then cladding is not required. In the case of finishing, you should choose high-quality heat-resistant materials.
Natural stone is one of the most resistant materials used since ancient times. However, one should take into account its significant weight.
Marble is a decorative stone. Manufacturers offer a wide variety of colors and patterns. Consider the large weight of the marble slabs and the high cost. It is suitable for finishing stoves and fireplaces, since it has the necessary qualities: easy to process, fire-resistant, durable and heat-resistant. Experts warn that the material reacts negatively to the effects of abrasive substances, therefore, when washing, you should avoid using them.
Granite is stronger and cheaper than marble. Granite slabs are practical, durable and decorative. The material is easy to process, has a variety of shades and textures.
Shell rock has beautiful shapes and a porous composition. It is not resistant to mechanical stress, but it heats the room remarkably.
Sandstone is a fairly durable material. It is suitable for both construction and cladding work. The aesthetically pleasing appearance adds a rustic feel to the room.
Onyx belongs to semiprecious stones, so not everyone can afford it. Onyx plates, as a rule, are made very thin and are used to cover only certain parts of the fireplace. It is believed that the stone has a positive energy, protects from the evil eye and heals from diseases.
Talcochlorite is also called soapstone. It is characteristic of it to accumulate heat and slowly radiate it into the surrounding space. It is believed to have medicinal properties. Shades are usually green, gray and bluish. Since the stone has minimal thermal expansion and high heat capacity, soapstone slabs can be installed near a fire. The heated surface does not burn on contact with the skin.
Talcomagnesite is a material of volcanic origin. By analogy with talcochlorite, it accumulates heat and gradually releases it. The unique properties of talcomagnesite are widely used in the decoration of fireplaces and stoves.
Artificial stone and ceramic tiles , in contrast to natural rock, gain in weight. They are generally lighter. Experts warn that you cannot use ordinary tiles when decorating a fireplace. It is imperative to choose heat-resistant modifications.
Porcelain stoneware is a modern material that has excellent characteristics, suitable for working on hot surfaces. Ceramic granite does not burn, is easy to install, heat and moisture resistant. Special glue is used to fix the plates.
The designers appreciated the possibilities of porcelain stoneware to imitate different materials, including natural rocks. Thanks to him, you can get an excellent appearance of the fireplace at a lower cost.
Clinker tiles are produced by firing in a closed oven. This is the most durable ceramic tile, additionally possessing moisture resistance, fire safety, heat resistance and a long life cycle.
Majolica is a small ceramic glazed tile obtained by pressing. Bright colored clay is used for production. The disadvantage is the fear of high humidity.
Terracotta is an unglazed tile of a denser structure than majolica.
Tiles have long been used for facing stoves. Ceramics is a tile that is covered with bright patterns and glaze on one side, and on the other with a rump for ease of installation. The painting is done by hand, so the cost of the tiles exceeds all types of facing material.
Finishing bricks differ from construction and refractory bricks in their technical characteristics. The main thing when facing is neat styling, an ideal shape without flaws and an even uniform color.
Drywall , as a rule, is used for the construction of false fireplaces. In addition, an insulating body for electric fireplaces or chimneys is created from gypsum plasterboard. It is recommended to use heat-resistant variations in such cases.
The main advantage of drywall is the ability to create any shape with it. To install it, it is necessary to erect a frame, for which a metal or wooden profile is used.
If wood is chosen for finishing the fireplace , then you should choose special types of wood that are resistant to high temperatures. These include oak, walnut and mahogany. Before work, the material is treated with special fire-resistant solutions. Valuable wood is expensive, but it also looks the part.
Glass is more often used not as a cladding, but as heat shields. The walls of the bio fireplaces and the front panels of the electric fireplaces are also made of heat-resistant glass.
Plaster is the cheapest and longest-used finishing option. Its service life is short, since it bursts and cracks under the influence of high temperature. But due to its low cost, it is used in villages and in garden houses for decorating fireplaces quite often. Modern technologies have made it possible to improve the composition, which contributed to the appearance of heat-resistant mixtures.
Cast iron is rarely used for decoration. As a rule, a firebox is made from it, as well as forged gratings and dampers.
Steel decor is rare. Typically, heat-resistant steel is used for grates, protective screens and doors. A stainless steel pipe is used as a chimney. Modern composite metals have made it possible to create interesting models of fireplaces entirely made of iron. The most popular are variations on electricity.
Heating fireplace designs when choosing require careful attention to fire safety.
They must be heat-resistant, non-flammable, heat-resistant, not emitting toxic harmful substances when heated, and have high thermal conductivity.
For the manufacture of false fireplaces, wood, polyurethane, foam plates, plywood or gypsum boards are used . Since these models only serve as a decorative function and do not involve heating, there are no strict requirements for the choice of materials.
In terms of size, fireplaces can be divided into large, medium and miniature.
Huge fireplace constructions are designed to generate a lot of heat. As a rule, they have an impressive weight and are installed on a foundation. Most often they are built on the first floors of private houses with high ceilings. Additionally, a similar fireplace serves as the central core of the entire heating system of the cottage. Large outdoor fireplace designs are appropriate . In this case, they should not be associated with the living area and are usually architectural compositions in the form of barbecue areas or barbecues.
Fireplaces that are installed on the upper floors and in apartments are not huge. Their dimensions are comparable to the size of the room and the ability of the floors to support their weight. These include a pellet fireplace, gas or electric fireplaces.
Models of small sizes give little warmth, therefore , they most often serve as decor. Bio and electric fireplaces are good examples.
The design of the fireplace depends on the type of fuel. The main types include the following:
Wood has always been used for heating the hearth. You can use any type of tree species. However, some of them burn better, others worse.
Experts do not advise heating fireplaces with coniferous wood, since after combustion a large amount of soot is formed, which contributes to the clogging of the chimney.
In addition, resinous logs crack and scatter burning particles, which is fraught with fire.
Birch is characterized by excellent heat dissipation . When burned, it releases the greatest amount of energy in comparison with other rocks.
Experts warn that birch firewood also forms a lot of soot on the chimney and the walls of the firebox.
Alder and aspen have the inherent property of burning out the soot that has accumulated in the fireplace.
Two types of coal are used for kindling: brown and hard coal. This type of fuel is quite effective, but it should be borne in mind that during the combustion process, small solid waste in the form of ash is formed, which must be removed regularly. In addition, coal fireplaces are recommended to be equipped with a grate and a blower door.
The briquette option is more often used, but there is also a lumpy one. It is advisable to use it if peat is mined near the area of residence.
When choosing this type of fuel, it should be borne in mind that during combustion, a lot of ash is formed and a sour smell is felt.
Sawdust or wood chips briquettes
In terms of calorific value, they are close to coal. Closed fireplaces are considered to be the best use case, because when the firebox is open, the briquettes burn out too quickly.
Fuel in the form of pellets, for the production of which various production wastes are used.
As a rule, they are divided into three groups:
- Industrial . Granules of this variety have an increased percentage of ash, since a large amount of bark gets into the mixture. This leads to frequent cleaning of the fireplace and, if not properly maintained, to damage.
- Agropellets are a product of agricultural waste processing (sunflower husk, straw). Burning also produces a lot of ash. However, their low cost is attractive.
- White pellets are considered a premium product. The percentage of ash is about 0.5%. The equipment does not need to be constantly cleaned. The downside is the high cost compared to the first two varieties.
Two types of fuel are used as fireplace fuel: methane and propane-butane . Gas is appropriate if there is a centralized system, otherwise it is necessary to use the balloon option.
Used in bio fireplaces. Alcohol fuel is expensive, so the structures are used mainly for decorative purposes.
Such fireplaces are safer, less expensive, since electricity is now available everywhere. Sometimes an oil radiator is used to obtain soft heat in electric fireplaces.
Special technical oil is capable of storing heat energy and gradually giving it to the environment.
Style and design
In terms of architecture, fireplaces belong to several basic styles, each of which has its own characteristics.
The classic is characterized by U-shaped portals and massiveness. As a rule, the structure is built into the wall; columns, bas-reliefs, and stucco molding are used for its decoration. The cladding is marble, malachite or valuable wood.
To enhance the effect, to bring the feeling of old England, the designers use stylish forged cast iron details to frame the large portal. Lattices or fences are made of them.
Country-style models are usually large and have a wide bottom base, which gives the whole structure a similarity to the letter "D". Below, there is usually a place for storing firewood. Since the style is associated with the village, the materials used to build it are simple.
As raw materials, porous stones are used that retain heat, for example, sandstone or shell rock. Chimney lining is most often done with plaster or bricks.
The Art Nouveau design is similar to the classic, but unlike it, it is more minimalistic and straightforward. The fireplace does not look massive, but creates a feeling of lightness, even if it takes up space from floor to ceiling.
Design solutions in a rectangular or semicircular shape are designed to fit the products ergonomically into the living space.
Hi-tech is a modern style in the interior, which involves the use of the latest materials and progressive technologies. Such options for fireplaces differ not only in their unusual shape, but also in various combinations of refractory materials: glass, chamotte, concrete, periclase.
Experts warn that the unusual design can be an excellent decorative element of the interior, but it sometimes degrades the thermal efficiency of the model.
Provence is a French rustic interior style that does not imply luxury and pretentiousness. All details should bring in notes of calm elegance and laid-back modesty. A fireplace U-shaped portal is best made of wood or simple stone.
The decoration should include exclusively natural materials: ceramics, stone, wood. Forged screens are sometimes used for protection.
Pastel shades with antiquity will add a touch of charm.
The perfect place for a chalet-style hearth is a country house, as it needs to be functional and provide heating. By the type of location, the structure is wall-mounted. Simple rocks are used for construction: marble, granite. Since the fireplace is erected by hand, the masonry itself is a decor.
The style was formed on the interior of shepherds and hunters who lived in the mountains, therefore, the decor elements must correspond to this.
To decorate the portal and chimney, weapons, horns, animal figurines, clay vases, tree cuts, unusual compositions from roots or branches, dry bouquets of herbs will be appropriate.
Ethnic style implies a variety of directions depending on the traditions of the ethnic group. For such a design, you should study in detail the history of the people, culture, and features of decorative finishes.
Where to place?
If the location of the fireplace is designed at the stage of building a house, then the following points should be considered:
- a fireplace near the outer wall requires high-quality insulation of the chimney;
- it is better to choose a place near the main internal wall, this will help prevent costs for thermal insulation;
- it is not recommended to place the fireplace opposite the windows and next to the door, since drafts will disrupt the functioning of the system;
- the portal window should be directed to the center of the room for good heating;
- to maintain an optimal level of operation of the heating system, a cast iron or steel grate must be provided;
- it is better to put a fireplace-stove in the center of the room - in this case, it can be delimited so that the stove will be in the kitchen, and the fireplace - in the recreation area;
- for safety reasons, near the fireplace, a space free of things should be organized, the floor is covered with fire-resistant material.
Otherwise, the location of the fireplace structure depends on the wishes of the customer and can be wall-mounted, corner, built-in or island.
Designers suggest using the space under the stairs to lay out the fireplace.
But experts warn that the installation of a real full-fledged fireplace in this case is ineffective, since there are a number of unfavorable factors:
- installation is time-consuming and expensive;
- chimney construction is the most difficult task in this case;
- all parameters should be thought over and calculated in such a way that the steps do not overheat.
Such models are mostly decorative than heating ones.
The modern market offers a large number of heating accessories. In particular, fireplace inserts, bio and electric fireplaces.
Combustion chambers are made of cast iron, heat-resistant steel or ceramics. The most famous manufacturers are the following brands:
- Austroflamm (Austria ). The company produces not only fireboxes, but also fireplace-stoves, characterized by high power with minimal fuel consumption. Users note a reduced volume of combustion emissions, a self-cleaning system for fireplace glasses, control automation, and a warranty. The manufacturer uses the latest technologies, thanks to which the model range is replete with a variety of shapes, designs, sizes. Efficiency 85%.
- Axis (France) . The manufacturer produces a wide range of fireplace inserts, each model is distinguished by design taste and originality. One of the advantages is a complete combustion system.
- Hergom (Spain) . The products combine many advantages, including quality, reliability, secondary combustion of fuel, which increases the energy efficiency of the system.
- NordFlam (Poland) . The furnaces are made of high quality cast iron. The products are distinguished by their ergonomics, light weight, and affordability. In addition, the distinctive features are high efficiency - up to 72%, monolithic smoke collector, which is a unique proprietary design, protection against gas escape.
- Schmid, Spartherm (Germany) . Fireplace inserts of the German brand Spartherm are elite models known all over the world for their impeccable quality, modern design and environmental friendliness. The equipment runs on gas or wood logs. Schmid products are known not only in Europe but also in Russia. Heating systems are available in different styles from classic to studio models.
- Nunnauuni, Tulikivi, Kastor, Helo, Harvia and others (Finland)... Finnish fireplaces have proven themselves in the domestic and foreign markets as highly economical and reliable. Many of them are equipped with technological innovations. Nunnauuni offers high-performance fireplaces with soapstone cladding, which increases the energy efficiency of the device. Various sensors allow you to adjust the amount of fuel. Tulikivi has a rock processing facility, therefore its fireplaces are mainly faced with natural stone. In addition to fireplaces, the product line includes more than a thousand variants of fireplace stoves. Their uniqueness is that they can work up to two days after the last refueling. In 2009, the Kastor and Helo brands merged into a single company that produces two trademarks. We can say that Helo is a cheaper analogue of the Kastor, although the quality in both cases remains the same.
- Group "Meta" (Russia-Belarus) . Production lines operate in both countries. The main distinguishing characteristics of the products are versatility, practicality and optimal price.
If we consider the manufacturers of bio and electric fireplaces, then there are many of them in all countries of the world:
- Decoflame (Denmark) offers devices characterized by safety, European quality and interesting design;
- Bio-Blaze (Holland) produces mobile biofireplaces of original form;
- GlammFire (Portugal) - luxury fireplace designs of this brand are presented in different versions, from floor to suspended;
- BioTeplo (France) uses a variety of finishing materials to decorate devices, which makes it possible to turn biofireplaces into unique decorative elements of the interior;
- EcoLife (Russia) . The production is located in Novosibirsk. Biodevices are simple, reliable and, according to consumer reviews, are cheaper than their foreign counterparts.
- Bionicfire (Russia) creates exclusive models according to customer drawings.
The electric fireplace market also has its favorites:
- Electrolux (Sweden) is the most famous brand for the manufacture of household appliances. The product range is unusually wide. The experience in production is colossal. The safety of fireplace devices is impeccable.
- RealFlame (Russia) is a worthy competitor in the field of fireplace technology. More than twenty years on the market. Many leading European firms have chosen the company as an official distributor. A complex pricing policy is noted as disadvantages.
If a heating fireplace was installed at home, then for its good operation without failures, it is recommended to take into account the following expert advice:
- when installing a stainless steel chimney, it is imperative to provide for its thermal insulation in order to avoid energy losses;
- the chimney requires regular cleaning, and in order to simplify this process, when building a fireplace in the chimney, you should take care of the presence of additional cleaning hatches;
- the most fireproof are closed-type fireplaces, and for open fireplaces it is recommended to provide a fence in the form of protective screens;
- when installing a fireplace structure, it is necessary to calculate in advance the degree of possible loads on the floor so that the floor does not collapse later;
- before kindling a fireplace, it is better to ventilate the room and ensure the supply of fresh air into the room;
- there must be at least 10 centimeters between the firebox and the fire-resistant wall;
- the double-sided body around the fireplace insert is recommended to be made of non-combustible heat-resistant materials;
- the area in front of the fireplace portal must comply with fire safety requirements: there are no flammable things in the immediate vicinity, the floor is covered with non-combustible material, under the door of the firebox there is a sheet of metal or other refractory up to 50 cm wide, 20 cm longer than the width of the firebox;
- there must be a set of necessary tools next to the fireplace: a poker, a scoop for ash, brushes for cleaning soot.
Beautiful examples in the interior
Fireplaces are unusual and original interior elements. They can express various design shades - from palatial luxury to rustic detail. Fireplace designs fit perfectly into the modern interiors of apartments, offices and private cottages.
See the next video for more on this.