To properly build a gable roof in a private house, you need to competently approach the installation and decoration of the pediment. This detail, along with the rafter system, ramps and roof covering, is the most important in housing construction. Therefore, it is worth taking a closer look at the roof pediment, what it is, why it is needed and how to make it yourself.
The pediment is the end side of a gable roof, bounded by slopes on the sides and the wall of the house from below. This detail simultaneously closes the attic part of the house, protecting it from cold, moisture and other adverse influences, and forms the architectural appearance of the entire building along with the roof and walls. If the slopes have the same length and angle of inclination to the horizon, then the pediments in shape represent an isosceles triangle, this type is most common. But there may be options with different sides and slopes, if the ridge is displaced relative to one of the sides of the roof.
Such structures are often found on extensions to the house, sheds, baths, gazebos; the main residential building may also have a roof with different slopes.
From the side of the street, the pediments are subjected to fine finishing ; decorative facing materials are attached to the rough floorings and partitions. Selecting them correctly is an important task, because together with the walls they will form the "face" of a country house. Below, at the junction of the pediment to the wall, a visor is laid. There are pediment overhangs on its lateral sides. This is such a continuation of the roof slopes, which passes into the cornices. Gable overhangs are often a continuation of the rafter system; they protrude some distance above the wall and additionally protect it from rain and snow.
Any kind of pediment in a country house will perform several useful functions:
- it protects the whole house from moisture and gusts of wind;
- makes the roof frame more rigid and stable;
- the pediment, equipped with insulation, allows you to equip a comfortable living space under the roof;
- performs decorative functions.
Often, an attic space in a country house is set up as a living room, workshop, storage room or attic. In this case, windows or even a small balcony are arranged in the gable partitions. Such a construction is more complex, but as a result, wonderful architectural projects can be realized. To decide on the choice of a gable for a roof in your house, you must first of all study their types and possible materials for construction.
In the order of construction, gables for a private house with a gable roof can be installed before and after the assembly of the rafter system. In the first case, the gable surface itself is a continuation of the wall. These are, for example, options for buildings made of bricks or gas silicate blocks, which are quite common. The gables in them are a kind of continuation of the side wall, only after their construction is the rafter system mounted and the roof is laid with an external coating. Another similar example is chopped gables, which are a continuation of the wall in a log cabin.
The second version of the design, when a rafter system of wooden beams is installed on the finished walls of the building (brick, concrete, wooden), only then the device and external decoration of the gables and the roofing take place. Such projects are very common, especially for the climate of the middle zone, if the roof is gable. When installing them, it is necessary to make a lower visor.
There are a lot of projects for gables, erected after the installation of rafters, it is possible to choose any design you like.
In world architecture, a large number of pediment forms are presented: triangular, trapezoidal, semicircular, unfastened, torn, stepped and others. It is worth considering only those that are used in the construction of country houses, and which you can build and sheathe yourself.
An isosceles triangle as a form of gable for the simplest gable roof is most common in the temperate climate of the middle zone. The gable plane is strictly vertical and perpendicular to the ground. The most common tilt angles to the horizontal are 15, 30 and 45 degrees. This construction of the form is not accidental - the steepness of the slopes allows not to accumulate snow and precipitation on the surface, the roof does not sag under the weight of the snow cover. In more southern latitudes, small angles of inclination are common - from 15 degrees, to the north this indicator increases.
A triangle with different angles of inclination of the slopes is less often used in the construction of gables, but the construction of such floors is not much more difficult. But a symmetrical figure looks more harmonious for a country house. Most often, with a standard project of a prefabricated frame house, you have to make 2 approximately identical pediments, they can differ only in the shape and number of windows. If the roof of the house has a more complex structure, for example, T-shaped, then 3 gables will have to be erected.
Pentagonal symmetrical gables are also widespread , especially in the construction of modern residential country houses. In shape, they resemble a trapezoid, on which an isosceles triangle is laid on top. Occupying a large area, they require more insulating and finishing materials than triangular ones, the installation of rafters and partitions is somewhat complicated. But on the other hand, with this approach to the construction of the roof, you can get a full and spacious attic room, it has the ability to make a spacious hall or several living quarters.
For semi-hip roofs of the Scandinavian or Dutch type, the pediments are obtained in the form of an isosceles trapezoid. Such a roof has a very original appearance, in addition, thanks to the streamlined design with beveled corners, it protects against powerful gusts of wind. The pediment itself is not particularly difficult to make, while the work is similar to a triangular shape.
It can be with or without a cornice and a visor.
The interrupted pediment is more complex than triangular, rectangular, or trapezoidal. It has a wide sloping cornice, which is interrupted from above by a horizontal partition or window. Installation of such a pediment can be difficult, but the view is original.
The bow or semicircular pediment is rarely used in the construction of private residential buildings due to its uneven curved shape. It is quite difficult to create arcuate elements of partitions, not to mention uneven roof slopes. But such projects also exist, for example, for the construction of the roof of personal pavilions, outbuildings.
After the load-bearing walls of the building have been erected and the rafter system has been built, you can start assembling the pediment. Several common and reliable materials are used for its manufacture.
Lining is perhaps the most popular type of wooden gable covering. It represents long planed boards with grooves and ridges at the ends, which serve to connect them together. The boards are attached to the frame of the truss system using ordinary nails. Such work can be carried out not only by a professional carpenter, but also by any experienced owner - this is one of the main advantages of this available material. If necessary, you can cut off the necessary pieces of lining with an ordinary hacksaw for wood.
The lining is made from various coniferous and deciduous woods, the most popular is pine, which has high strength, flexibility, ease of processing and a pleasant appearance. There are several grades of this material: first, second, third and extra. The presence or number of cracks, knots, wormholes, the likelihood of rotting and other parameters depend on the variety. For a durable and beautifully looking gable, it is best to select high-quality lining types. To prevent it from being exposed to moisture and decay, it must be treated with an antiseptic, varnished.
The advantage of the lining during the construction of the pediment is that no decorative finishing material is required, it itself has a pleasant appearance with expressive wood textures. The material is strong and durable with proper processing, environmentally friendly, retains its appearance for a long time.
The lining has good thermal insulation, but during the construction of the attic, the pediments still need additional insulating materials.
Partitions for gables can be made from regular wood. Various species are suitable for this: ash, beech, spruce, pine, oak, cedar and many others. It is necessary to take planed boards with a thickness of at least 1 cm with smooth edges. As a result, you can get solid walls with a pleasant exterior that do not need external finishing. The disadvantage is that no matter how even the boards are, the gaps between them still remain, the wind, cold and moisture will blow through them through them. Therefore, in any case, such gables will need insulation.
Wood, with all its advantages, is not able to provide the required level of warmth and dryness in the house, especially in winter. Even if the attic is not in use, the non-insulated pediment will allow the cold to pass through the ceiling to the first floor. Therefore, it is worth purchasing high-quality materials in advance for thermal insulation, protection from steam and moisture.
Mineral wool is a very good material as protection from the cold. It is easily cut into fragments, pushed into any corner, is not subject to decay. Its cost is lower than that of other heat insulators. But when laying mineral wool, it can cause skin irritation, this is recognized as its main drawback.
Polyfoam is also a relatively cheap material that can be easily sewn into the cavity between the gable partitions. You can cut it with an ordinary painting knife. Styrofoam insulation can last a long time, while keeping the attic warm.
Polystyrene foam is recognized as one of the most effective thermal insulation materials today. It is more expensive than other types, but it is easy to process and install, protects against the penetration of cold and moisture, and is not subject to mechanical damage. In addition, other effective materials can be used for thermal insulation of gables: penofol, penoplex, polyurethane foam for sealing cracks, and others.
For the installation of cornices and a canopy, you can use wood materials: boards, chipboard, picket fence or metals, for example, a profile sheet or metal tile.
The windows in the gables are made traditionally - wooden frames with mineral glass or modern PVC double-glazed windows, which can be ordered in any size.
The gables of a private house, depending on the rafter system and the purpose of the attic, can be of different widths and heights. If the attic is not planned to be used at all, then for reliable protection from snow and precipitation, it is enough to make a height of 0.8 m.To use the space under the roof as a storage room or other non-residential premises, the distance from the base to the ridge should be increased to 1-1.2 m Then, when equipping the attic hatch, access becomes easier, it is possible to store the necessary things inside, but it will not be comfortable to stay there for a long time.
When planning construction under the roof of a full-fledged living room or attic, the height of the pediment will reach 1.5 - 2 m. In this option, mandatory insulation of the partition, installation of windows and ventilation is required.
In order to know how much material is required for the construction of one triangular pediment, its area should be calculated. It is elementary to do this: the height is multiplied by the width of the base and divided by 2. So in advance, you can calculate the cost of installing partitions on the roof and the dimensions of the blanks of a bar or lining.
The removal of the roof is done for additional protection of the pediment and the attic from precipitation and wind. An outlet or frontal overhang of 40-60 cm is considered optimal. Usually it is a continuation of the rafter system and roofing, therefore, when installing them, these dimensions must be taken into account on both sides.
How to make?
It is much easier to make a strong and beautiful pediment on your own than a rafter frame and a roof. With ready-assembled rafters, first of all, you should decide on the choice of the main, insulating and decorative finishing material. Immediately it is worth preparing the required number of fasteners, tools for work. Then you need to calculate the area of the two gables, and based on it, stock up on raw materials.
Installation of the gable partitions should be carried out only on stable scaffolding , fixed on a flat horizontal platform. Since the installation takes place at a height, their presence for safety and effective fastening of elements is simply necessary. The scaffolding must be equipped with platforms in full width so that it is comfortable to move, hold the boards and fasten them to the frame in a convenient position.
It is best to opt for durable and lightweight aluminum structures with wooden panels.
Workpieces of the required length are cut on the ground. The gable elements are fastened from bottom to top - from the base to the ridge of the roof. If the height is large and it is difficult to reach the upper elements, then another tier of scaffolding should be assembled for the convenience and safety of work, which is in the first place in importance here.
After installing the gable partition, it is necessary to fix the visor, install the windows and make decorative trim.
How and what to sew correctly?
If the finishing of the pediment with polished and painted lining does not require any additional decorative materials to be hemmed, then the rough boards or beams need a finishing coating. It should be in harmony with the rest of the facade of the house in terms of gamut and textures. Several finishing materials for the roof gable are widespread.
You can close the rough surface of the roof partition with siding. This wonderful facing material has recently gained immense popularity in the construction of country cottages. Siding is made of metal with a polymer or galvanized coating, asbestos cement or polyvinyl chloride. The color can be very diverse, the texture is also different: glossy, matte, with corrugation and patterns. So choosing a coating in accordance with the overall design of the facade will not be difficult.
Siding can be used for up to 50 years, while maintaining its original appearance and rich shade. It has a relatively low price, is resistant to moisture, temperature extremes and mechanical damage. All modern species are reliably protected from oxidation, bacteria and other active chemicals. In addition, this material is lightweight, which makes it easy to work with, especially when climbing a high tier of scaffolding.
Before attaching polymer or metal siding to the pediment, it may be necessary to make a wooden batten that creates a flat vertical plane. To install it, you can take bars of 40x40 mm and fasten them with nails or screws. Siding elements, depending on the purpose, are of several types: starting profiles, finishing strips, corners, soffits, chamfers, J, F and H profiles.
Siding installation starts with a starter profile at the bottom of the gable. The elements are connected to each other using grooves and latches located on them. Fastening to a wooden lathing takes place through holes for ordinary screws. Adjacent horizontal stripes can be connected with an H-profile. The finishing bar is placed at the top. If necessary, siding parts are easily cut: metal - with metal scissors, polymer - with an assembly knife.
Siding for facade works can be not only glossy with various monotonous colors. There are products that repeat the structure of natural wood or logs, such are suitable for facing the pediment of a house made of beams or a log frame. For stone buildings, there are options for brick, quarrystone, artificial stone.
You can sew up unsightly rough boards of the pediment with the same clapboard. For this, decorative varieties with a protective coating are taken. If the surface is flat, then the elements simply close in grooves and are nailed. If there is no vertical level, then it is necessary to make a crate and only then proceed with clapboard facing.
You can relatively cheaply and quickly finish the gables on the roof with plywood or chipboard with a laminated coating. These materials are not as durable and weather-resistant as polymer or metal siding. But as a budget or temporary finishing option, they are quite suitable. Thin plywood can be easily cut and attached to the rafters with ordinary nails, it is easy to lift it up and fix it. You can cut window openings, ventilation holes. Various color options for the coating make it possible to make any design.
Tips from the pros
For the installation of gable partitions and battens, you should take well-dried, planed and even beams or boards. Craftsmen recommend, first of all, pine as the highest quality and easiest material to process.
For decorative cladding, horizontal siding is best. It is easier to install and looks very impressive on any facade.
Wind direction plays an important role in the construction of a country house. No matter how well the roof gable is insulated, it is optimal that it is located along the direction of the prevailing gusts, and not perpendicular to it. In this case, both the attic and the first floor are better protected from bad weather.
The visor at the base of the pediment plays an important role ; it will protect the wall of the first floor from precipitation. It should be made of metal, profiled sheet, galvanized sheet and mounted before decorative finish.
No matter how simple the shape of the pediment is, before installation it is worth creating its drawing with dimensions, window openings and other details.
For information on how you can lay out a perfectly flat pediment, see the next video.