Everyone strives to choose high-quality, but budget materials for building a house. In an effort to save money, people do not always choose the right raw materials, which leads to unsustainable construction. Building supplies manufacturers offer a wide variety of building materials. Today, aerated concrete is in great demand.
Aerated concrete block is a stone of artificial rock. The gas block is created from special aerated concrete.
Aerated concrete is a type of porous concrete. To create it, cement sand, quartz sand and special gas formers, such as aluminum paste or special suspensions, are used. Some manufacturers mix these elements with gypsum, ash or lime.
The resulting mass is heat treated in autoclaves at high temperature pressure. Due to the chemical reaction that occurs inside the autoclave, foaming of the cement slurry is obtained, followed by its solidification. Pores form inside the hardened cement block. For some manufacturers of gas blocks, voids occupy more than eighty percent of their products. A high percentage of pores means that the material is lightweight and, therefore, less durable. In addition, the more pores, the worse the thermal conductivity of the material becomes.
In addition, developers prefer gas blocks for the construction of curtain and load-bearing walls, since these materials have special properties:
- high rate of physical and technical characteristics;
- increasing the energy efficiency of the building.
Having decided to use an aerated concrete block in the construction, you need to find out about the main technical characteristics of this material. It is important to do this, as this way you can avoid the wrong choice and overpayment for low-quality material.
The main advantages of such a building material as a gas block include:
- good sound insulation, if the thickness of the wall concrete is three hundred millimeters, the noise produced is less than 60 dB;
- low density, that is, the lightness of the block, which is five times lighter than ordinary concrete, and two, and sometimes three times lighter than brick;
- ease of use, aerated concrete is easily cut with a hacksaw on wood;
- with the same thickness of the gas block and brick, the thermal conductivity of the block is five times better;
- environmental friendliness of the material allows you to carry out construction work safely and without harm to health;
- the construction speed increases several times, since the concrete block is large and replaces up to fifteen bricks of the 1NF format;
- there are no cold bridges in aerated concrete masonry;
- budget price;
- aerated concrete material is fire resistant due to the fire safety of aerated concrete
Despite the many advantages, the material also has several disadvantages:
- the moisture absorption rate is higher than that of similar building materials;
- low material strength.
What does size affect?
The dimensions of aerated concrete blocks have an impact on the entire building as a whole. The thickness of this material affects the strength, thermal insulation and sound insulation of the wall being erected. The thicker the size of the gas block, the quieter and warmer it will be in the building. Therefore, it is recommended to choose aerated concrete with a thickness of at least thirty centimeters for the structure of load-bearing and external walls. As for the structure of the partitions, here the thickness should not be more than ten or fifteen centimeters.
In addition, the height of the building gas block also affects the construction process.
- the higher the height, the less you will need to purchase concrete blocks. This will save you money on building material.
- the higher and smoother the aerated concrete, the stronger the building structure will be. In addition, the evenness of the material eliminates the appearance of cracks.
The dimensions of aerated concrete material planned to be used in construction depend on the purpose of the future building. Gas blocks are of different purposes, but two types of blocks are in great demand on the building materials market: partition and wall. The dimensions of one concrete block are regulated in accordance with GOST standards.
The Gostovsky standard indicates that the size should fit into the following parameters:
- thickness (width) - range from one hundred to five hundred millimeters;
- height - on a scale from two hundred to three hundred millimeters;
- length up to six hundred millimeters.
However, these indicators vary depending on the type of aerated concrete. Each block shape has its own standard sizes. But it remains unchanged for everyone that the weight of the material remains light, even despite the size and length, which for all types is six hundred and fifty millimeters.
Gas block used in the construction of the outer wall:
- straight lines - width from two hundred to three hundred millimeters, height from two hundred and fifty to three hundred millimeters;
- made according to the groove-comb system and having gripping handles - the thickness is equal to four hundred millimeters, the height is two hundred and fifty millimeters:
- straight lines, equipped with gripping handles - the thickness is four hundred, the height is twenty-five millimeters;
- simple with a groove-comb system - three or four hundred by two hundred and fifty millimeters.
Gas blocks for partitions:
- straight lines - width one hundred and fifty millimeters, height two hundred and fifty;
- partition walls - one hundred by two hundred and fifty millimeters.
U-shaped aerated concrete blocks differ in size. They are used in the construction of window and door openings. Their width is from two hundred to four hundred millimeters, and their height is two hundred and fifty millimeters.
In addition to the listed types, products whose thickness does not exceed seventy-five millimeters are common. They are necessary for the construction of interior partitions, as well as for the construction of load-bearing walls of a building. In addition, they play the role of additional insulation.
How to choose?
Many people who do not know the intricacies of the construction business are faced with the problem of choosing an aerated concrete block. In order not to make the wrong choice, which can subsequently lead to instability of the building, when choosing the type of blocks, it is recommended to follow the following criteria.
When choosing an aerated concrete block, it is important to remember that this material is not universal. For carrying out various types of buildings, it is important to choose the material that suits the purpose of the construction. For the construction of load-bearing walls and the construction of capital partitions, wall blocks are suitable; when erecting an internal partition, a partition type of a gas block is used. It is not difficult to understand what is their difference. The difference between a partition block and a wall block is thickness. In partition walls, it does not exceed two hundred millimeters.
And also when choosing, it is recommended to clarify the density of the block. High density indicates high strength of the material and high thermal conductivity. Therefore, the building material with the highest density mark needs to think about thermal insulation. The medium density brand D500 is very popular. It is suitable for all types of construction. But when erecting partitions, it will be more rational to use the D500 brand.
When choosing a dimensional block, the builder needs to find out the size of the block and carry out the calculation. This is necessary in order to understand how many blocks will be needed to build all the walls. In addition, it is advisable to check with the seller about the presence of a groove and a ridge in the blocks. This is an optional requirement, but due to the presence of these elements, laying becomes easier, and the consumption of glue is much more economical. However, the price of this type of block is much higher than the cost of a regular one.
Another important criterion that you need to rely on when choosing aerated concrete blocks is its brand. Most often, the produced aerated concrete blocks of all brands are made in the same way using the same equipment and a similar composition. If in a store the cost of one brand significantly exceeds the cost of another, then in it the buyer simply overpays for the brand and the popularity of that same brand. In addition, you should pay attention to the location of the plant, manufactured products. Often, the high price is due to the remoteness of the plant, and the store overpays for logistics.
When calculating the required amount of material, the builder must take into account that the estimated adhesive consumption, which, according to the manufacturers, they greatly underestimate. Most likely, much more material will be required during construction work. The exact amount of consumables is determined by the quality of the gas block and its dimensions.
In accordance with GOST standards, no more than five percent of chips and debris on block material are allowed. However, this indicator is suitable only for products of the first grade. The second grade material has an inherent rate of ten percent. Chipped aerated concrete is suitable for laying exterior walls with subsequent cladding. The choice of this type of block will save a quarter of the costs planned to be spent on material.
The final important criterion for choosing a block is the cohesion base. From the type of adhesion base, the appearance of the gas block itself also changes. For a dry screed, it is required to select a building material with a deviation in all parameters. The block should be no more than one and a half millimeters thick. Glue laying also requires a deviation. It should not be more than two millimeters, and for masonry using mortars - no more than five.
What is a gas block, about its types and sizes, see the video below.