One of the most ancient varieties of horses is considered the Arabian breed. Their story begins several thousand years ago. The first mention of horses of Arab blood dates back to the 5th century BC. Over the years, animals have not lost their uniqueness, thanks to which they have become very popular everywhere. Arabian horses are the ancestors of most horse breeds, the most famous of which is the English thoroughbred and Russian riding horse. Such horses were usually presented as a gift to high-ranking officials of the state.
Features of the breed
On average, an Arab thoroughbred horse reaches a height of 1.5 meters. This growth makes the breed relatively short. The head of a horse is medium in size. The horse of this breed has a rather wide forehead, large eyes and cheeks, which are characterized by a rounded shape. The constitution of the animal is distinguished by its grace, especially indicated by a long neck with a slight bend and massive legs with well-developed muscles. The mane of Arabian horses is of medium length, the tail is high. The firm hooves of animals are small and regular in shape.
This breed is very popular with photographers because of its luxurious appearance, they are rightfully considered the most beautiful representatives of their species.
According to the characteristics, the Arabian horse has a non-standard skeletal structure. The tail and lumbar vertebrae in animals are an order of magnitude smaller than in the bulk of the species. The same goes for the ribs, of which the horse has only 17.
The color of the Arabian horse can be varied, the most common of which are:
Usually young horses have a light coat color, which darkens and becomes gray with age.
The Arabian horse differs from other breeds in its longevity. Under normal conditions and with proper care, an animal can live up to 30 years. The record figure for the entire history of the existence of these horses has reached a 40-year mark. Fertility is considered one of the most important advantages of this breed of horses. A case was recorded when, over 28 years of life, a mare was able to bring offspring in the amount of 20 foals. Arabian mares carry their offspring for a long time - about 340 days. Even in old age, animals of this breed are capable of reproducing healthy offspring.
Beautiful appearance is not the only advantage of Arabian horses, they also have a well-developed intellect. Animals are capable of quick perception of information, learn quite easily, and have a good memory. Therefore, if you offend a horse, it will remember this for a long time and is unlikely to ever be able to forgive its offender. By virtue of its strong character, the animal feels strong-minded people and obeys mainly only them. For this reason, this breed is rarely suitable for riding.
Arabian horses are friendly towards their owner, so the animal will be loyal to him. These noble horses have a very stubborn character, it is almost impossible to force them to do anything. If a relationship of trust arises between the owner and the animal, then the latter, in turn, will make every effort to please the first.
The Arabian horse breed is distinguished by its robust health. They take bad weather well, are incredibly hardy, and long-distance races aren't a huge problem for them.
Arab horses are often used in sports. These races are held regularly and are an excellent test of animal endurance. This breed of horses is not considered one of the fastest, but their agility persists until the very finish.
Interestingly, the representatives of the Arabian horse breed have excellent acting and dance skills.
The breed of Arabian horses consists of several horse families, the most popular of which are kohlani and ateshi. By the way, they are the most ancient representatives of the breeds, therefore, in many characteristics, they are significantly superior to other families. Central Arabia is considered the birthplace of the nejeli. These horses are incredibly noble.
In the modern world, there are 5 types of Arabian horses.
- Hadban . The racehorse of this species is considered the largest representative of the Arab breed. She is quite playful and hardy, so she is very often used in races. Horses with a red or bay coat are often found. A little less often you can see gray animals.
- Siglavi . Light constitution is characteristic of such horses. These animals are small in stature. Most horses are gray. Interestingly, gray horses have black skin around their eyes and on snoring. Since childhood, the Seglavi foal has been preparing for performances at various shows and exhibitions.
- Coheilan . These animals are distinguished by their incredible endurance. The physique is very strong and massive. This type of Arabian horse is also used very often in horse racing.
- Koheilan-siglavi (obeyan) . Such a horse is a hybrid obtained from the representatives of Siglavi and Coheilan. Outwardly, these animals look very attractive and, moreover, have a strong constitution. Obeyan are quite tall. The most popular suits among the representatives of this breed are red, bay and gray.
- Maanegi . Representatives of this type of Arabian horses have long legs and a narrow chest. They do great long distances. The growth of such horses can reach 1.6 meters.
It is recommended for animals of this breed to create favorable conditions for their maintenance. It is best to keep these horses in a herd, as this method is considered economical. Herd keeping contributes to the formation of the character of animals. They become hardy and hardened. In addition, in this way, you can breed Arabian horses much faster. Such horses can also be kept individually. Usually, this method is used in relation to sports horses, young animals or male producers.
In the case of mares, individual maintenance lends itself to:
- young growth;
- idle horses;
- suckling mares.
In any way of keeping Arabian horses, they should be provided with the necessary care.
A lot of effort needs to be made to equip the stables, since the horse spends most of the time here. The room in which the herd of horses will be kept should be large and spacious, with a normal indicator of air humidity. The stable should also be very clean and warm.
Stages of construction and arrangement of a room for horses.
- Choosing a place . It is best to build a stable in an elevated area. There should be no motorway or various bodies of water nearby. It is also not recommended to build a stable near the settlement, as animals love silence very much. The lack of water bodies will contribute to the dryness of the room during the rainy season.
- The foundation . For the foundation of the room, you need to use reliable material. It is necessary to provide it with normal moisture insulation, for example, using roofing material.
- Building materials . The material for the construction of a stable must be heat-resistant and waterproof.
- Gender . The indoor surface should be warm and firm. In a stall, an adobe floor is usually used. It is recommended to lay a wooden floor in the passage. Sometimes they use concrete.
- Heat resistant bedding . To keep the stable floor warm, a large layer of straw or sawdust is placed on it.
- Roof . The structure must be solid and have high strength. Ordinary slate is perfect. A metallic coating is often used as well. The ceiling height must be at least 3 meters. For insulation, the roof is filled with straw and sand. The ceiling must be strictly solid wood material.
- Ventilation . Typically, such rooms make a supply and exhaust ventilation system.
- Lighting . It is advisable to place windows at a level of two meters from the floor. This is done so that the scorching sun does not blind the animals. Sometimes they resort to installing artificial lighting.
- Feeders . The depth of the container should be at least 30 centimeters, it is usually placed at the level of one meter from the floor.
- Corral . Not far from the stable you need to make a corral for horses. One animal needs 20 square meters.
It is imperative to equip a room for storing animal feed. Do not forget that it is necessary to keep the horses clean, therefore it is necessary to create a room for washing them. It is also necessary to equip a staff room and a warehouse for inventory.
Arabian horses need frequent walking. Usually they should be sent for a walk at least twice a day. To do this, you need to find a suitable pasture. Often they are also walked in paddocks. In the cold period, the duration of animal walks is reduced. This is because Arabian horses do not like low temperatures. In the cold period of the year, the time allocated for training animals is also reduced.
The horse should be cleaned regularly. You need to wash the animal very carefully, otherwise you can harm it.
Use the necessary equipment for this procedure:
- velvet cloth;
- hoof hook;
- several sponges;
- vacuum cleaner.
The shoe protects the horse's hooves from all kinds of damage and also looks aesthetically pleasing.
Varieties of horseshoeing.
- Universal . Suitable for all members of the breed.
- Special . It is used for horses participating in races.
- Orthopedic . Such a shoe is used in case of injury to the animal.
- Studded . Perfect for moving on ice, therefore it is installed in winter.
Proper feeding of the animal is already half the success. Food must be rinsed before serving. Do not feed horses with stale food. For a horse to be energetic and healthy, its food must contain nutrients.
Wheat is considered the main product in the diet of Arabian horses. It is recommended to add 5 kilograms of steamed oats to food daily.
Wheat straw is also an essential ingredient. Her daily intake is 500 grams. Arabian horses love to eat barley, which is best diluted with a little hay. Alfalfa is given to animals at least four times a day. The daily amount of bran does not exceed one kilogram.
Flaxseeds are included in the diet to strengthen the horse's hair and make it look healthy . Boil them before serving. Horses can eat no more than 500 grams of this product per day. Legumes can be added to the animal serving as a protein supplement.
Usually they are given to young animals or male producers. Rye is considered a taboo food in Arabian horses.
Arabian horses should receive the required daily fluid intake per day. Water is given to animals up to 5 times a day before eating. The amount of water a day averages 50 liters, in winter it is reduced to 30. Water must be clean, normal temperature is 10-15 degrees.
After training, liquid should not be given to the horse for half an hour.
Specialists have been breeding Arab horses for many centuries. At the same time, they manage to preserve the unique characteristics of animals and make many improvements to this variety. In Russia, the Tersk plant is famous for having the best Arabian horses in the country. They gained fame for their successful performances in various shows and sports. In Arab countries and Europe, they are also actively engaged in breeding this horse breed. In the UAE, such horses belong to noble people, including the royal family. Local stables are considered the best in the world, they have everything for keeping animals.
The activities of breeders cover several areas of activity. Breeding work is carried out for the following purposes:
- breeding production;
- the creation of new breeds;
- improvement of the breed;
- horse racing and sports;
- creating a new line.
Only high-bred horses should be involved in the breeding process. In addition, they must be mentally stable, have an excellent conformation and have a good pedigree. In this case, only purebred horses can be crossed.
Foal mares are always kept separately from the main herd. They are meant for reproduction. A horse can bear its offspring for about 11 months. Throughout pregnancy, you must carefully monitor the mare's diet. For the last three months, it is advisable to adhere to a strict diet. The food should contain the required amount of nutrients, among them are:
When the horse begins to look for a secluded place, it means a quick foal. Basically, the process of childbirth falls on the evening or at night. A mare is able to give birth to foals by herself and practically does not need human help. After three hours, the privacy of the female can be disturbed.
It is known that Arabian horses have a good immune system, but these animals are still susceptible to disease. The most important thing is to study all the nuances of the treatment and prevention of Arabian horse diseases. It is also necessary to show the animal to the veterinarian from time to time. We bring to your attention the most common diseases of Arabian horses and the prevention of their treatment.
As you know, the gastrointestinal system of horses is very sensitive, therefore, in case of a violation of the diet or an insufficient amount of useful elements, health problems can begin.
- gradually start giving the horses large feed;
- monitor the quality of products;
- do not soak food in water;
- fill your daily diet with foods that contain fiber;
- use feed from different manufacturers, combine them with the already familiar products.
This disease is quite common among representatives of the Arabian horse breed. It is characterized by damage to the top layer of the skin under the hoof.
Laminitis can be recognized by several signs:
- high temperature of the extremities;
- when walking, the horse makes small, quick steps;
- partial refusal to move.
Laminitis is caused by overfeeding and too much time spent on hard surfaces.
At the first symptoms of the disease, it is recommended to consult a veterinarian. Before the arrival of the doctor, it is necessary to provide first aid to the animal:
- it is better to place the horse on a solid surface;
- remove all food and flooring nearby;
- put water in front of the animal;
- wash hooves;
- treat with a special antihistamine-based agent.
An Arabian horse must be vaccinated against:
Once every six months, it is recommended to donate animal blood for:
- infectious anemia;
- sat down.
By adhering to these simple rules of prevention, you can avoid many diseases in Arabian horses.
An overview of Arab horses is in the next video.