Планировка ландшафтного дизайна участка доступна каждому человеку. Чтобы оборудовать территорию, которая понравится каждому, нужно ознакомиться с основными правилами создания проекта.
Если вы стали обладателем дачного участка, вам потребуется много времени и сил для того, чтобы его облагородить и превратить в комфортное для пребывания место. Каждый человек мечтает о том, чтобы у него было родовое имение, в которое приезжали бы не только его дети, но и внуки.
Перед тем, как начинать обустройство своей территории, следует изучить особенности территории:
- перед работами вам потребуется продумать программу действий. В этом деле поможет составленная схема, на которой будет детально отображена планировка будущей усадьбы;
- работая над проектом своего участка в 6 и 12 соток, следует учитывать особенности рельефа, расположение холмов и оврагов, гор. Данные факторы оказывают непосредственное влияние на расположение построек и функциональных зон;
- изучите особенности форм своего участка. Для каждой формы есть свои правила, согласно которым вы сможете грамотно обустроить территорию. Любая, даже неудачная на первый взгляд форма, может преобразиться, если подойти к вопросу с умом;
- стороны света оказывают непосредственное влияние на формирование будущего дизайна. В зависимости от расположения вашей площади, вам будет доступно несколько вариантов обустройства;
- на участке 4 сотки или 5 соток вы сможете расположить только самые необходимые предметы. Для более крупных территорий, площадь которых равна 9 соток или 15 соток, вы можете придумать большее количество построек и конструкций;
- изучите тип почвы вашего участка 30 на 40 метров, так как данный показатель будет влиять на вид растительности, которую вы себе сможете позволить. На бедной почве не каждое растение сможет выжить и порадовать богатым урожаем. Чтобы обеспечить хорошую плодоносность земли, потребуется завозить плодородный грунт;
- наличие естественных водоемов и уровень грунтовых вод влияет на обустройство дренажной системы.
A personal plot of 40x30 m can be very cozy if you design correctly. To complete this task, you will need to responsibly study the features of your particular territory. A detailed planned project, where all further actions are displayed, will help you foresee all the difficulties that may arise in the future.
The style of the suburban area should be thought out in advance. Depending on the characteristics of the territory, you can choose the design you like and bring it to life.
- Many landscape experts suggest taking advantage of the eco-style . The interest in this design is due to the high degree of technogenic atmosphere. In such gardens, natural forms, beautiful flower combinations and bright colors are acceptable. This style is based on a counterbalance to the landscape setting. The reservoirs are equipped with biofilters and special systems that guarantee water purity and rational consumption.
- Provence style becomes recognizable due to the large number of small decorative details. In such a garden, garden figures, flower beds, artificially paved paths and streams should be placed. All elements look laconic against the general background, forming a thematic setting. Plant aromatic herbs such as lavender, rosemary, or thyme. They will complement the French dacha setting.
- The country is dominated by dense planting of flowers, combinations of fruit trees, vegetable beds and greenery. With gazebos hiding in lush foliage and decorative wrought-iron elements, you can create a charming design. If your house does not have a veranda, you will need a cozy patio with a gazebo, summer houses, and a sofa swing. Designers recommend planting grapes, ivy or roses. This dendrological style is endowed with coolness and pleasant aromas of flowers.
- If you want to surprise your guests, pay attention to the Mediterranean style . It is created with multi-stage fountains, columns, cypress, lavender and terracotta garden furniture. Suitable for a large plot, and can also create a cozy atmosphere for a small family estate. In order to efficiently spend a small area, you can build a duplex.
- Art Nouveau style in landscape design is popular. This type of arrangement is distinguished by its minimalism, in which there are numerous patterns and labyrinths. Pay attention to this design if you own a corner piece. The layout must be smart. Add natural stone, concrete and metal structures to your landscape. Any plant is allowed, but most gardeners prefer green.
At night, LED flashlights will look original at such a dacha.
- African style in the country is gaining popularity. Here you will find unlimited scope for style maneuvers. When creating such a layout, it should be remembered that only natural materials are allowed. It is best to use wood. This landscape is characterized by warm and hot colors. Decorate your garden with wooden paths, laid out "decks", figurines with idols, stone vases and rattan furniture
- If you are planning to relax on the estate in winter, pay attention to the forest style . Grilling a barbecue in a pine forest is an original idea that will be appreciated by everyone present.
- Antique designs are also popular. It is enclosed in an artificially aged garden that looks like an abandoned estate. The special atmosphere is harmoniously complemented by wild herbs and flowers, which, in combination with a residential building, create an atmosphere of mystery and loss.
There are no restrictions for landscape design. You can create any style that you like. The choice of the desired design should be made on the basis of their capabilities, skills and financial reserve. You can also entrust such a process to professionals who will individually develop a project that suits your site.
Do-it-yourself planning of a personal plot should be based on the requirements for the design of the territory. When developing a project, make sure that the distributed and decorated zones are harmoniously intertwined and combined with each other. Designers advise to carry out the decor in the same tone or choose matching shades. In the summer cottage, bright contrasting colors will look good.
All buildings should emphasize a single concept of the site. To combine functional areas, you can use arches, curbs and uniform structures. Thanks to lighting, a bridge and general color schemes, you can beautifully connect and decorate the territory. At each cottage, flowers will be appropriate, acting as a connecting link and an aesthetic component.
What is the decor of the suburban area:
- choice of colors, competent distribution of accents;
- decoration of the territory with flowers, flower beds;
- selection of fruit and berry plantings and planting trees;
- location on the site of reservoirs, artificial waterfalls;
- arrangement of the pool;
- selection of material for paths, selection of the required shape of paths;
- the use of figurines and sculptures located throughout the territory;
- original designs selected as the division of functional areas;
- planting a lawn on slopes or next to a recreation area.
For the arrangement of landscape design, large-scale events are not always required. However, if you cannot imagine your family estate without water facilities, be prepared to say goodbye to extra meters for a pond or pool. It is not very difficult to create artificial lakes and the whole process begins with the choice of the concept.
In order for the created water structure to harmoniously fit into the overall picture of landscape design, it will need to be executed in the same style with the entire site.
Living and decorative fences
A plot of 12 acres will be enough to accommodate a recreation area. It will fit a gazebo, which hides from prying eyes behind a living wall of shrubs, as well as a vegetable garden, separated from fruit trees using a bright mixborder.
With the help of non-uniform fences, you can give your site a more voluminous look.
With the help of trails, you can move around the household farm in any weather. If your project includes lawns, flower beds and paved terraces, look for paths made of natural stone or larch. This combination organically fits into the design of the territory and supports a single concept of the site.
The material for the paths is selected based on the environment, terrain features, groundwater level and surface load.
Lamps on the territory of the cottage can have different decor. Luminous paving stones on the paths, fiber-optic light sources that accentuate the outline of buildings and lanterns located around the perimeter, you can create a great environment. This solution is distinguished by its functionality, decorative component and can cheer up.
Small decorative designs and details
In most cases, the artistic component of garden figures is not original. This becomes noticeable at the moment when they lose their attractiveness due to weather conditions and time. If you are preoccupied with the issue of improving your site, but do not want to overpay for expensive compositions, choose small-scale wooden elements. Due to their natural origin, such structures look organically on the territory of the dacha and retain their attractiveness for a long time.
In the country estates, agricultural work is often carried out, fruit crops are grown and pickles are prepared for the winter. Children are engaged in a dedicated play area, and guests are located near the barbecue and communicate in the gazebo. Some people like to bask in the sun and sunbathe. Men dream of their own workshop.
In suburban areas, you can do a lot of things depending on your interests. To ensure a comfortable stay at the dacha of each family member, you should responsibly approach the issue of zoning the territory. Think about each household member and create a place where they can immerse themselves in their atmosphere and enjoy being outdoors. To make everyone happy, you need to study the family estate zoning system.
All household plots can be divided into several functional areas:
- household and household purposes;
- recreation areas;
- the location of the vegetable garden and garden.
Planning should be carried out on the basis of a rational division of the site. Plan ahead for where the infrastructure will be located. According to the accepted norms, about 9-11% of the territory should be allocated for building, the utility yard, paths and areas with landscaping should occupy about 14-16%, and a garden with a vegetable garden will occupy about 65-77% of the total area.
Planning is considered a creative process. It all depends on the flight of your imagination and wishes, but it is advisable to comply with generally accepted norms, as this will allow you to avoid typical mistakes. For each zone, you should allocate its place on the site, focusing on the area of the territory, the location of the site on the cardinal points, and relief features.
To correctly plan the zones of your homestead, learn the key subtleties of the process and implement them in your project.
The house is a key detail in a suburban economy. The division of the territory into sections should begin with the choice of a place for building a residential area. The rest of the zones will depend on this place.
The economic zone should be located in the depth of the territory. Some designers advise to take the area closer, but at the same time it should be hidden from prying eyes behind decorative plantings and buildings.
Buildings should be located on the territory so that they protect the area from the winds and do not create additional shadow. The best solution is the north or northwest side. Shrubs can be placed around the perimeter of the site, which are not afraid of the shadow.
This place is considered the most beautiful part of the country. Your guests will gather here, and other household members will communicate with each other, and children can also play. The recreation area can be placed in any part. You can put it in one place or place it throughout the site, based on your preferences.
Most summer residents decide here to equip beautiful paths, on the sides of which beautiful flowers grow. Shrubs are planted in the visibility zone. Unremarkable flowers that have a pleasant scent can be planted here.
The gazebo, where your family and friends will gather, should be in a picturesque setting, surrounded by trees and beautiful flowers. You can decorate structures with arches entwined with grapes.
Do not forget about the key link in such a zone - the barbecue. Rest will not be complete without it.
The sunny side is suitable for a vegetable garden. The shade from buildings will not interfere with the development of green spaces, which will allow you to get a good harvest every year.
Previously, summer cottages were kept only for the vegetable garden. At the moment, this rule is a thing of the past, and country houses are being equipped for pleasure and relaxation.
However, each territory, even if it is equipped with simple lawns, will need light and water. If your land is at different levels, plant moisture-loving plants at the bottom.
If you decide to get out of the city, study the basic principles of territory zoning:
- functional areas should be placed rationally;
- a minimum amount of land should be allocated for buildings and pedestrian zones;
- the distance between objects should be minimal.
With the help of these rules, you can competently solve the issue of zoning a suburban area.
Such tips are suitable even for triangular sections and other shapes.
Principles and schemes
In suburban construction, three types of territory planning are used:
- there is a wide demand for a combined style in which both types of planning are present.
A regular style is optimal for flat terrain. It is characterized by the geometric design of the building, the area for the placement of beds and paths. This style is considered to be thrifty if you are targeting crop farming. Planting trees can be staggered, rectangular or square. For tracks, choose straightforward compositions.
All compositions that are performed in this design must contain a competent placement of components in relation to the given and key axes. Only strict geometric shapes are allowed. The same rule applies to water bodies. Make sure that the shapes of the paths and alleys also follow the clear and even concept of the entire style.
In a landscape style, you can freely place plants. This style is suitable for complex microrelief, as it is characterized by winding paths, smooth changes in the types of plant representatives. In the landscape style, the utilitarian operation of the site is assumed. With its help, you will give your dacha an attractive and bright appearance.
When choosing this style, forget about straight and symmetrical lines. The presence of irregularities in the territory, ravines, artificially created hills and irregular water bodies is mandatory.
The paths that will be located on the territory should have a wavy structure without flimsy and sharp forms. Choose only natural material or its imitation.
The mixed style combines the previous two. Based on the location of the area to be decorated, it provides a lot of choice of ideas. At the moment, this style is considered the most popular.
After you have thought about the project of your future site, you can move it from thoughts to paper. You can take a plan diagram as a sample.
In order to spend only the required amount of funds and to better understand the structure of your land plot, experts advise you to draw up a diagram with your own hands. This requires drawing skills, familiarity with scaling, and spatial thinking.
Draw a plan of the area on paper. If you purchased a plot of 9 acres, choose a scale of 1: 100. To draw a diagram, you will need a sheet of 30x30 cm. Line it with a grid, which consists of squares with sides of 1 cm, or purchase graph paper. In this case, it turns out that each square occupies one square meter of your garden plot.
Then you can cut out buildings from paper. Cut out what you plan to place on the site. Move the layout around the drawing to determine the most convenient location. Consider the functionality and purpose of the facility, the terrain, the shape of the existing area and climatic conditions. Do not forget about the sanitary and fire safety components.
You can make a volumetric modification of the plan out of paper material or use plasticine. Thanks to this arrangement, you will be able to determine the most shaded areas, a place for a vegetable garden and flower beds. Preparing a plan in advance on paper will cost you less than reworking or replanting plants in the future.
Principles and rules for creating a plan:
- take into account the location of the house, taking into account its main and auxiliary entrances;
- take into account the places where additional outbuildings will be built;
- distribute zones for playgrounds and paths;
- consider options with a fencing fence;
- your project should include plants and other decorative elements;
- do not forget to indicate power transmission and engineering communications.
A more detailed plan scheme should be thought over in relation to the cardinal points. This stage is important for proper planting. To calculate the warmest and most protected areas, add air direction to your design.
When your scheme is ready, you can contact the official services and get a master plan for the site. A competently drawn up plan diagram will contribute to your confidence in further communication with builders and gardeners.
In the process of organizing a plan for your summer cottage, you should rely on its form. Depending on the appearance of the territory, new subtleties and possibilities are revealed. There are several common forms of space for which proper layout is important.
An L-shaped section is considered difficult, so take your plan development seriously. Designers recommend using the protruding part as a recreation area or playground.
If you've purchased a triangular lot, consider an asymmetric planning approach. The focus should be on components with a round shape.
These elements include:
- gazebos for relaxation;
- flower beds.
All buildings can be placed in the far corners. At first, the triangular shape can be confusing, but any positive person can arrange all zones on such a territory functionally and creatively. Due to this form, it is possible to translate into reality buildings with non-standard projects, flower beds, beds with an irregular shape and other additions. Asymmetry in such a territory would be the best solution. Consider this in your project.
For a rectangular area, you can use the standard principles of drawing up a plan. This form is considered the most common and allows planning without difficulty.
Planning of a long stretch is often required. If you have purchased a small elongated plot, use the following option: there should be a house inside the territory, to which a straight path leads through the recreation area and garden. However, this method will make the shape of the lot uninteresting.
To expand visually the territory, you can use the following techniques:
- place bright objects on both sides of the path. They will distract attention. Accents should be at a short distance from the path, increasing and expanding the visual space;
- you can use benches, simple arches that are braided with vine branches. Many housewives use colored gnomes;
- to make a long and boring trail more interesting, add small, distracting paths that lead deeper into the territory;
- try dividing the length into several zones. Each territory should have its own characteristics;
- shrubs can change the proportions of a long section. Choose large shrubs with beautiful flowers for these purposes;
- give up spacious lawns. They will not fit this shape.
If you're planning a round lot, try to follow these guidelines:
- the house should be located in the center;
- other outbuildings should be placed away from prying eyes;
- trees, shrubs and flowers should be located along the fence;
- you can highlight the features of the shape of your site using artificial reservoirs, gazebos and unusual flower beds.
Many people purchase sloped plots.
On such squares there are hills and folds that cannot surprise anyone even now. To turn the territory into a place for a comfortable pastime and living, you need to carefully consider its planning.
Experts divide such areas into two categories: with a slope of 15 degrees or more. The tilt value has a direct impact on the construction technology of the country house and the whole process. A slight slope does not affect changes in the layout of the house, but construction work should be carried out at the highest point. This method allows you to exclude possible flooding of the building, and will also guarantee a good view of the entire site.
If the slope is greater than 15 degrees, there are some tricks to use when designing your drawings.
To reduce the steepness of the slope, you can use the following methods:
- split the slope into several horizontal terraces. At the edges of the levels, it will be necessary to equip with retaining walls and limiting slopes. On the terraces, you can plant plants or arrange the necessary structures;
- a drainage system must be present at each level to ensure the drainage of storm water;
- you can use a bedding or a cut of the slope in those places where the buildings will stand;
- consider the issue with the support of the remaining soil. This method allows you to increase the usable area of the summer cottage. Equipping with a drainage system will also be required;
- paths will help you navigate the site. They can have the appearance of steps or ramps.
A diagonal path of steps, which is directed upward along a steep rise, will look original on the territory.
You can build a house on a slope by maintaining the natural slope and horizontal position of the house. You can get this effect with a basement room. Be prepared for the fact that you will need to build a large basement. It can house a garage, a storage shed, or a kitchen. With this method, you will get a two-level room.
If the slope is small, the garden will have the characteristics of a flat area. Medium slopes will require retaining walls and terraces. The design of a territory with a large slope will require large-scale construction work. The concept of a garden plot on a slope is more similar to landscape solutions.
However, you can also make a regular garden. For example, many Italian Renaissance garden plots were located on the slopes, delighting the eye with the view of the cascade and stairs. With this technique, you can equip even the steepest incline.
To equip such an area, you will need to carefully strengthen the slopes and slopes.
To do this, you need:
- planting vegetation with a well-developed root system;
- fixing the slope mechanically. Biomats, cellular geogrids and other materials will help you in this matter;
- planting of tree and shrub varieties.
Site planning is very diverse, but general principles are required. The layout option will depend on a whole list of conditions, including indicators of a geological, geodetic and climatic nature, as well as on your capabilities and imagination.
How to place buildings
Most often, household buildings, even a narrow section, are located on the farthest side of the territory. Using such a scheme, you can hide unattractive buildings from the eyes of strangers and relieve the bulk of the area. The placement of outbuildings should be made based on the functionality of the facility.
Several options for how to position the house.
- If you are the owner of a rectangular plot with a flat relief, the house can be located anywhere. An object that borders the street will reliably protect the area from prying eyes, and the central location will help you create a secluded atmosphere;
- for a plot with a narrow shape, the location of the house near the shortest or side side will be optimal. With the help of such a layout, you can efficiently use free space. Thus, you will expand the space near the entrance, and your site will become more voluminous;
- if you bought a plot on a slope, rely on the location of the hill. On the southern slope, the object should be located at the highest point. It is recommended to build a house on the eastern or western hill at the highest point on the northern border. Soil with a slope towards the north is considered the most inconvenient option. The building must be erected near the western border or in the center of the slope.
Everyone agrees that sheds, workshops and small buildings for storing garden tools are best located in the most remote areas. If you are thinking where to put your garage, choose the convenience of the entrance, and when setting up a greenhouse, you will need the most illuminated area.
Not a single site where there are no utility facilities can be considered comfortable. Each summer cottage should have a barn in which the necessary tools will be stored, a bath for good rest and an outdoor toilet. Without such buildings, your country house will look incomplete.
All buildings should be located along the perimeter of the territory, at the maximum distance from the residential building. Incorrect combination of an outbuilding with decorative elements negatively affects the design of the entire area as a whole. This condition applies to the toilet and compost pits, as unpleasant odors will penetrate into the house and spoil the whole pastime. Make a preliminary plan to facilitate further action.
The vegetable garden should border on the barn in the same way as the flower beds. You don't have to go far when you need an item. The owners of summer cottages who own vehicles should take care of the construction of a garage. It is recommended to locate such an object near the wicket. If you decide to build a place for your iron friend in the depths of the garden, you will be faced with the need for an additional road to the object.
It is not necessary to place buildings along the edges of the summer cottage. You can arrange the objects as you see fit. Consider in your work the situation on the cardinal points, exclude excessive darkening, or vice versa, the location on the sunny side.
To plan competently the landscape design of a summer cottage, you will need the help of specialists. Having studied the recommendations of professionals, you will find answers to existing questions.
Creating a design for a future suburban area is an interesting and creative idea. If you have a large area, there are practically no restrictions. In such a territory, you can place not only the most necessary objects, but also fulfill your dreams in the form of an artificial waterfall, a large garage and entertainment areas.
To make all your plans a reality, start by carefully considering the location of key sites. Put your thoughts down on paper with an accurate site plan.
You can use the following guidelines as an example:
- the house should be located on the north side of the site. With the northern facade, he can look at the garage or other structures. It is undesirable to plant flower beds or other plantings near such a wall, since this wall is devoid of sunlight. Such a solution will help you save square meters and functionally spend the sunny area;
- the illuminated side should be used for a garden, vegetable garden or recreation area;
- windows should face two sides of the building. Give preference to the east and west side. This will allow you to view the entire area from the house and ensure full flow of light into the room. If possible, you can make window openings on each wall;
- the gate should be located at a short distance from the entrance. The garage needs to be built near the gate.
You should not equip a parking lot for a car in the depths of the site, so as not to waste extra space under the entrance;
- on the opposite side of the site, you can set up a garden, plant flowering plants. Do not forget to enclose the area with decorative fences. Choose a place wisely so that the sun's rays fully nourish the vegetation, and you can get a healthy harvest from the beds every year;
- you can plant trees around the entire perimeter of the garden. They will protect the seedlings from the wind and hide the site from the prying eyes of neighbors;
- outbuildings will be located not far from the garden so that all the inventory is always at hand;
- the recreation area is split next to the country house. It can have a gazebo, barbecue, a place for storing firewood;
- a playground can be arranged next to the recreation area. In the play area for children, trampolines, a sandbox and a small house will be appropriate;
- the pool should be installed next to the recreation area, but away from the children's area;
- next to the gazebo, you can build a bathhouse, which will contribute to a good rest and recovery of your family and guests;
- all objects must be connected by paths. Choose their arrangement with brickwork, wood saw cut and other materials. Some owners of suburban areas use concrete, expanded clay for a similar purpose. Plant flowers along the edges of the paths, install lanterns;
- you can decorate the site with decorative figures, which are popular today;
- use terraces or an alpine slide to plan your site on a slope. In shallow places you can plant a lawn, and organize reservoirs in the recesses.
If you decide to create a landscape style at your dacha, you must understand that the garden should look attractive at any time of the year. For this reason, most designers recommend planting coniferous trees on their site.
In order not to waste time looking for the necessary material in the markets, check out the range of nurseries and horticultural stores. Consider the characteristics of the selected variety, as not every plant will do well in your area.
If your summer cottage is located in a temperate continental climate zone, the English design of the environment will be optimal for it. As a basis for such a garden, you can use miniature varieties of weeping willow, mountain pine, ivy, petunia, crocus and roses.
The success of a project in small areas lies in simplicity. You can visually change a small space with climbing plants on the fence. If you want to hide your summer cottage from strangers with a vine with decorative shoots, consider your climate. Southern varieties are not suitable for the northern regions, since they cannot please their owners with luxurious flowering. For the northern regions, a girlish grape, actinidia, is suitable. They are able to survive the winter without shelter.
There are no restrictions for landscape design. You can easily create your own unique plot or use ready-made ideas.
Many people want to live in a fairy tale. The forest landscape will help you plunge into a fabulous atmosphere and create a peaceful atmosphere on your site. When choosing this style, remember that intrusion into the design of such an area should be minimal.
There will be enough accent in the form of wild plants, artificial reservoirs and streams. Such additions will act as connecting links between the forest and the houses. The forest grass, which occupies a significant part of the territory, will harmoniously complement the landscape, paired with stone paths and wooden benches.
Country house design in English style
Many people choose the English style for their guest house. On the site there should be small mounds on which a mowed lawn of bright color grows. Use interesting paths as a decoration of the lake, which will get lost between curly bushes and flowers. Daisies, asters and dahlias look good against such a background. In the most secluded part of the garden, there should be cozy benches around which deciduous plants grow.
An example of Moorish design
Many designers love to work with the Moorish style. This is a beautiful setting that gives unique emotions to its guests through fountains, ponds, lush flowers and many shades of green. In the central part of the site there should be a fountain or an artificial reservoir around which moisture-loving plants grow.
The bottom of the reservoir and areas without vegetation are covered with multi-colored tiles.
Little Japan in your homestead
Japanese style has eight pillars:
- a rock;
- streams of water;
- deciduous tree varieties with beautiful flowering;
- an abundance of flowers;
- the presence of moss;
- pebbles with sand in the decoration;
- jewelry that emphasizes the Japanese theme;
- coniferous plant varieties.
Such a garden will look attractive even in winter, since beautifully trimmed conifers do not lose their beauty in the cold season.
For lovers of a calm and cozy atmosphere, there is a Chinese style of summer cottages. Such a landscape is endowed with beauty and serenity. Unlike Japanese design, Chinese design involves changing scenery. A new picture opens from each point.
In such a layout, symmetrical arrangement of flower beds and smoothed lawns are not allowed. In the setting, tall bamboo, around which flat stones are located, will be appropriate. Dragons and traditional pagodas are in fashion.
See below for tips from a landscaping specialist.