The roof has a big impact on the functionality and appearance of a building. There are several types of roofing that can be used when designing a home. For its high-quality construction and beautiful design, it is important to think of the roof as a key design function. One of the most popular roofs is considered to be a four-pitched one, it provides a presentable appearance, reliability and durability. During construction, it is important to know the design features and technology for the construction of such roofs.
The peculiarity of hipped roofs is that they allow you to easily build attic floors. Premises with such roofs are considered the most comfortable, spacious and ideal for living. Such a roof can be created in a private house, used for a bathhouse or garage. Gable roofs can be covered with almost any type of material, including asphalt shingles, metal, clay or concrete tiles.
However, if such a roof is part of an attic, it should be tiled or covered with metal tiles, a standing seam, to prevent any roof leaks.
Advantages and disadvantages
The four-pitched roof is resistant to moisture and snow weight. It provides more space for the attic or vaulted ceiling, allowing for more ventilation in a private home. Its simple design allows you to build such a roof yourself. Such structures are much cheaper than complex roof types.
But such a roof also has its drawbacks. Gable roofs are problematic in areas with high winds and hurricanes. If the frames are not properly designed with adequate support, the roof can collapse due to strong gusts of wind. Winds can damage the materials of such roofs.
There are several types of hipped roofs for private and two-story houses. The characteristics of each type should be taken into account in order to make the right choice.
These roofs have two sloping sides that create end walls with a triangular extension called a gable. They are easy to construct, they are not afraid of water and snow. They are economical and good for ventilation. This type of roof is suitable for all weather conditions.
This is a type of roofing where all sides slope down towards the walls, usually with a fairly gentle slope. It is called so because it consists of hip stingrays. It turns out a house without gables or vertical sides of the roof. The roof is shaped like a pyramid. It is more difficult to build, but it is convenient in everyday life (you can build an excellent attic on such a roof).
Each area of such a roof has its own tradition or preference for the materials used to create it. In climates where there is less rainfall, freezing is unlikely to occur, half-hip roofs are often built of brick or concrete. This is a good invention for keeping the sun warm. The semi-hip type of roof is cheap and easy to build.
Such a roof is called a broken roof: its end slopes are short and do not reach the middle of the side slope.
There are many types of roofing and installation techniques.
Make sure you have all the necessary roofing tools and safety equipment. You will need:
- roofing nails;
- a piece of chalk;
- tin scissors;
- work gloves;
- the right shoes;
- seat belts.
Decide what type of shingles you want to choose. Make sure you have purchased enough material for the installation. It is important to follow step by step technology.
- Prepare the roof for installing roofing tiles. Remove old roofing material as well as all nails. Do not install new materials on top of an existing roof.
- Install a bedding, waterproof layer between the shingle installation and the roof.
- Install a drop edge on the outer edges of your roof.
- Then you need to install starter tape or the first layer of shingles. Use chalk to mark the exact center of the roof while walking vertically.
- Center the starter gallery in the middle of the chalk line and pin it in place. Continue installing shingles along the entire length of the roof.
- Proceed with installing shingles of the entire length of the roof according to the manufacturer's instructions.
- Cut the shingles to the desired size when you reach the edge of the row.
- When you reach the ridge of the roof, install the backbone shingles.
- Make holes for the chimney, ventilation.
- Clean up any debris and re-line the roofing tiles.
Installation of roof tiles
The installation of clay tiles has not changed over the centuries. This ancient form of roofing looks simple enough, but should be done by a qualified roofer. It is known that properly installed clay roofs can withstand 100 years; poor installation will quickly require repair. There are 2 forms of fastening roof tiles.
Clay roofing is provided with nails. Usually they use copper nails. The second (most common) method is using lugs that protrude from the roof. Today these styles are often nailed as well for added assurance.
Other (less common) forms include suspended clay roofing with wires, clamps, or stacking them in adhesive foam. These methods are usually performed in areas with special weather conditions.
The main steps for installing roofing tiles are as follows.
- Assess the roof before moving on it. Fix any areas that show signs of decay or wear.
- Install waterproofing. This is important for clay tiles, as they significantly increase the waterproofness of roofs.
- Use chalk to mark the horizontal and vertical lines on the roof. This will ensure that the pattern of the composite roofing material will not be deformed.
- Install beacon and gutters.
- Use quality metal for your gutters.
- Start laying the first row of your tiles. Follow the manufacturer's instructions, each type and style of clay roofing may require a different method.
- Use high quality metal nails that are corrosion resistant to keep the clay tile roofing for a long time.
Clay roofing can vary slightly in color, so rearrange the tiles if you are unhappy with the color scheme. If you are happy with the result, continue to work consistently until the roof is finished.
Metal roofing is becoming more and more popular due to its ease of installation, durability, safety and environmental friendliness. There are many styles of metal roofing. Before proceeding with the installation, you need to answer a few questions:
- do you need vertical panels, standing seam or shingles, what are their differences;
- what type of metal sensor is needed, taking into account the budget and climate of a particular region;
- what metal is most optimal for the roof;
- what color of roofing material will look advantageous.
Often times, metal needs to be cut or bent in order to fit straight. Installing vents can seem like a daunting task. These are the basic steps that go into installing a metal roof.
- Determine the pitch of the roof that will help determine the type of metal roofing to use.
- If necessary, remove the old roofing, taking into account the type of metal roof, local building codes and weight restrictions of the house.
- Install waterproofing. It will protect the roof from precipitation.
- Install the cornice edging. The metal roofing must then be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
- Clean up any debris from construction work.
You can build a roof from various materials. Recently, square hipped green roofs have become popular. When building a roof, you need to take into account the characteristics of each material. Roofing tiles are an important aspect of a building's aesthetics in patterns, textures and colors.
Roof shingles are usually locally available material. The type of shingle is taken into account before construction; the material affects the construction method.
Wooden roof tiles
The most commonly used material is resistant to decay. They make it from red and white cedar and mahogany. The length of such a tile usually does not exceed 40, 45, 60 cm. The thickness is 1-2 cm in section. To improve durability, wood shingles should be installed with air circulation. Experts recommend sheathing such shingles.
This can be done with regular plywood (recommended for areas exposed to wind). A breathing bucket is also needed - about 7/20 cm (to provide airflow under the tiles). Wood shingles are prone to decay, but have a unique natural look. The minimum slopes are 4: 12/3: 12. The expected durability ranges from 15-25 years.
Clay and concrete tiles
The service life of such material is 30-75 years. It can be dried in an oven or it is cast concrete. Concrete is a fairly heavy material, but its plus is that it is non-flammable, it is safe. The minimum slope is 4: 12.
More expensive roofing metals have self-shielding oxide coatings of copper, zinc and stainless steel. Typical size is 45 x 60 cm. Material nozzles are attached to the deck and rolled into a seam. Flat seam systems are commonly used on roofs that have a low pitch. They are also used on curved surfaces (dome and vault). This method cannot be used in warm countries.
Green (ecological) roofs - a roof covered with vegetation. These roofs are required in some parts of London. They are more expensive to build and more expensive to maintain than a conventional roof type. However, green roofing works well with water irrigation and is an incredible insulator, reducing heating costs and making the home more sustainable. It is also a good sound insulator, expands the size of the garden, creates the effect of the value of the house.
There are 2 types of green roofs.
Large Green Roof - less than 6 inches thick option. Due to the thickness of the growing medium, the vast green roof can only support drought-resistant small plants. The reasons for this are the limited root space and the small amount of water that the soil can store. Because of this, roofs are maintenance-free and can withstand moderate loads.
An intensive green roof has up to 90 cm of land and therefore can grow a greater variety of plants (shrubs, grasses and even trees). It often looks like a real garden. However, these varieties need more attention in terms of content.
The four-pitched roof structure is easy to design. Its symmetrical shape is attractive, allowing maximum use of the attic or attic space. If you have carpentry skills, you can easily create such a roof. The four-slope roof design requires the side slope to be between 5 and 60 degrees.
It depends on atmospheric loads, the purpose of the attic and the type of roofing materials used. In areas with frequent and heavy precipitation, the slope should be significant (45 to 60 degrees). In regions with strong winds and occasional rainfall, the slope is usually much less.
If the angle of inclination is approximately 5-18 degrees, it is recommended to use a roll covering, 14-60 - roofing metal, 30-60 - shingles.
The height of the roof ridge is calculated using the trigonometric expression for right-angled triangles. Calculation of the rafters - the beginning of the design of the whole house. The cross section is determined depending on the expected load (weight of the roof, roofing cake, external influences) and the degree of inclination of the roof. With the help of calculations, the step between the rafters is determined and their bearing capacity is checked.
It is important to know the basic elements of a hipped roof. The frame or framing structure is designed to support the roofing materials, thus keeping the building waterproof. Rafters are the structural elements of the roof that support the sheathing. Usually they are perpendicular to the wall, they never touch it.
Roof pitch refers to the amount of roof lift compared to the horizontal roof pitch, called pitch. As a rule, it consists of 12 units. If the roof rises 4 units in length of twelve, the height is 4: 12. In degrees, this figure is 18.43. The wrap-around sheets are small overlapping roof blocks with vertical stepped joints. They are made from wood, asphalt, slate, clay, concrete, metal or other materials.
The slings are subject to constant and temporary loads, therefore it is important to correctly calculate the required level of the maximum permissible value. The main calculated snow load parameter adopted in Russia for the middle belt is 180 kg / m3.
- If the roof slope is more than 60 degrees, the snow load is not taken into account.
- The standard design value of the wind load for the central zone of Russia is 35 kg / m3.
- If the roof slope is less than 30 degrees, the wind correction is not included in the drawing.
The load parameters are adjusted for local climatic conditions due to certain factors. The total roof weight is calculated based on the amount of materials used and the total area of the structure. In the calculations, payload indicators are introduced into the system (for example, if water heating tanks, ventilation tanks are installed).
It is necessary to calculate the strength of the rafter and the degree of possible deformation under different conditions. Most often used are rafters in the form of a rectangular strip with a section corresponding to the design loads, plates with parameters 5x15, 5x20 cm.The choice is limited to sawn softwood (for example, spruce, pine) with a moisture content of 18-22%, treated with antiseptics and fire retardants.
Installation of a hip roof
Hip roof - a roof that slopes downward at all points and has a uniform pitch angle. This type of roofing is good for draining water and preventing leaf growth. Although most people build such roofs from trusses (prefabricated frames), it is possible to build your own hip roof from scratch.
The roof structure consists of a whole range of related materials and elements. These include acoustic waterproofing, vapor barrier, ventilation elements. Due to its layering, this four-layer construction is called a roofing pie.
To create your markup, it is important to perform a number of specific steps.
- Measure the length of the common rafters, running rafters and backbone using the ridge at the end of the rafters themselves. Common rafters are those that run from the top of the wall to the top of the roof.
- The joggers run along the joints where the two roof edges meet. Measure them according to the step. The ridged board runs along the top of the roof and where the common and running rafters meet. Measure this according to the building length of other rafters that will fit this.
- Measure the common rafters according to the desired pitch or roof angle.
- Cut the rafters to the appropriate size. You should have enough common rafters to run 20 inches (50 cm) along the walls. The simple roof above the rectangular building will have four rafters and one board with a ridge.
Sequence of work
The plan for installing a hip roof structure for a one-story structure with your own hands begins with building a roof truss system. But in this case, there are significant differences. Before the start of all work, auxiliary materials must be provided, representing a small elevation for the work of the master.
- After that, you can proceed with the installation of the first element - the backbone, which is attached to the previously erected vertical supports located in steps of 3-5 m.
- Then a Mauerlat is installed, which is necessary to evenly distribute the roof load on the structural components of the house. It is located in the center of the outer wall or offset to the inner edge.
- After the Mauerlat is installed and secured, you can begin to install the diagonal rafter legs, which are connected to the outer corners and fixed inside.
- Subsequently, the sloped lines must be attached to the slopes. Outsiders or half-steps differ in that they are installed in pairs. They are fixed with the support of the Mauerlat and the diagonal line, they are fastened at different heights.
The next step is the arrangement of spacers, which are attached under the diagonal supports. The tilt angle is 45 degrees. Then you can proceed with the installation of intermediate lines, which have two points of support: at the top to the ridge, the bottom edge to the Mauerlat. They are installed with a certain uniform ridge, which averages from 1 to 1.2 m.
To improve the design of intermediate rafters through 1 element, they are additionally fixed on the load-bearing wall of the house using metal strands or brackets.
Tips & Tricks
It is worth paying attention to several important recommendations and tricks that will help to correctly build a four-pitched roof.
- The quality and durability of the material . Make sure the materials you choose are durable. A quality manufacturer will examine each slab. If your batch has a large number of broken slabs, you can blame the manufacturer.
- Selection of an installation contractor. When choosing a roofing contractor, it is important to know their track record. If possible, visit the contractor's past assignments and speak with homeowners. It is important that the contractor is a professional in his field. An experienced craftsman should install the roof.
In addition, we must not forget about the squaring of the structure. Without this, it will not be possible to assemble a high-quality structure. Knowing all aspects of roofing installation, as well as the most common mistakes, will also help you when choosing a roofing contractor.
A well-built roof can last 100 years. Take your time, carefully prepare your roof design.
Successful examples and options
Ready-made examples will help you evaluate the design possibilities of a four-pitched roof and its advantages.
- The simplest option is with a hipped roof.
- Mixed roof type. In the image you can see how the four-pitched type fits perfectly with other types of roofing.
- A beautiful roof option with an attic and an attic.
In the next video you will find step-by-step instructions for building a hip-hip roof.