When carrying out some types of construction and repair work, protection of the structure from moisture is required. There are many materials that perform this function, which include a well-known component - bitumen. The most functional and technically justified is the use of such a complex composition as rubber-bitumen mastic.
The main purpose of the mastic is to insulate the surface, due to the formation of an elastic film, impermeable to water, on it, which well protects the material covered by it from decay and corrosion processes. The components contained in the rubber-bitumen mastic determine its properties and purpose. The base of this material is most often petroleum bitumen.
Previously, bitumen was used very often as a waterproofing material to protect building structures. Its widespread distribution was justified by the low price of oil, because bitumen is a product of its processing. But over time, the protection of surfaces with a material that contained only bitumen became not very profitable, and the layer formed on the surface was not distinguished by resistance to temperature extremes. Therefore, manufacturers have developed several formulations based on bitumen.
Due to differences in plasticity, operating temperature and reliability of the formed coating, they were divided into different types, including rubber-bitumen or polymer mastic.
Modern rubber-bitumen mastic is made according to GOST, where, in addition to bitumen, the composition contains fine rubber, solvent and filler.
- Rubber and bitumen are the main components in the composition that determine the technical characteristics of the mastic. Thanks to rubber, the coating on the surface does not melt under the influence of high temperatures, and it does not crack at low temperatures.
- Fillers give the formulation extra strength against chemicals and UV resistance. Materials such as basalt wool, lime, asbestos, ash, crushed quartz and even brick dust can be used as fillers.
- The solvent in the composition of the mastic plays an important role , it is thanks to him that the composition acquires the necessary consistency, and after applying the layer, it is close to the initial viscosity. The evaporation rate depends on the specific gravity of the solvent: the lighter it is, the less it is required and the faster it evaporates from the composition. The presence of a solvent in the composition greatly facilitates the application method. Cold mastic does not require heating before applying a layer to the surface, as with the hot method, it only needs to be mixed and a little solvent added with excessive viscosity.
The easy-to-apply cold-curing rubber-bitumen mastic can be used as a waterproofing layer in the automotive and construction industries. Most often, such a composition is used in construction, it is in this area that it is most in demand.
Rubber-bitumen mastic is successfully used for waterproofing structures with various purposes and consisting of a variety of materials. It protects equally well both concrete elements of the foundation, walls, and wooden beams used as a frame basis for structures.
In addition, it is successfully used as anti-corrosion protection for metal surfaces such as pipelines, steel tanks for various purposes and other metal structures.
Excellent waterproofing properties of the mastic make it possible to use the composition for repairing flat roofs. The roofing mixture is specially designed for roofing, its resistance to moisture prevents the formation of mold on the surface, thereby preventing its premature destruction.
The sealing function inherent in the rubber-bitumen mixture allows the composition to be used also as a filler for seams, cracks, chips and other recesses in building materials without dismantling the old layers. In addition, it can be used to glue various waterproofing materials.
Non-hardening mastic is used as a seal in the joints between a window or door block and a wall.
In the automotive industry, rubber-bitumen mastic is successfully used in many types of bodywork. The treatment of car bottoms and arches improves their impact resistance. But the main function of the mastic is still anti-corrosion protection of these places most vulnerable to water exposure.
The addition of aluminosilicates to the rubber-bitumen composition allows to increase the sound insulation characteristics of the car.
Advantages and disadvantages
Bitumen-rubber insulating mastic, like any material, has a number of advantages, but also has its drawbacks. Consider the merits of the material.
- High degree of adhesion and viscosity of the composition. It adheres equally well not only to horizontal smooth surfaces, but also to vertical surfaces with structural recesses. Thanks to the combination of the components used in the composition, the mastic creates a cast and sufficiently strong coating on the surface that is not subject to precipitation, temperature changes and the development of mold colonies.
- The cast coating, created by the elasticity of the composition, allows you to hide small flaws on the treated surface. There are no cracks, no chips, or other irregularities visible on it, since the plastic composition fills all the depressions well.
- From an economic point of view, the use of a rubber-bitumen compound to protect metal structures from corrosion is a very profitable investment. Complete replacement of the structure will cost more than simple mastic treatment.
- The composition has a lower consumption and weight compared to rolled materials. For waterproofing works, 2-4 kg per 1 m2 is enough, for gluing materials, it will take from 1 to 2 kg per 1 m2, and for arranging the roof, you need from 3.5 to 6 kg per 1 m2.
- The components of the mastic do not belong to substances that negatively affect human health, on the contrary, the composition has some specific antibacterial qualities, which allows it to be used without any restrictions at the place of application.
There are few disadvantages to the composition, but they are still present:
- The bitumen-rubber compound is intended for outdoor use only.
- To work with the composition, certain weather conditions are required: the ambient temperature should not fall below -5? С, the absence of precipitation and wind.
- When applying mastic by hand, uneven distribution of the composition is possible.
Today, many companies are engaged in the production and release of rubber-bitumen mastic. The most famous companies that have been holding leading positions for more than 20 years, producing the highest-quality composition of rubber-bitumen mastic, are four: TechnoNIKOL, Descartes, ChemTorgProject and Profilyuks.
Reviews of the products of these brands are extremely positive.
- The company "Descartes". Produces a cold-curing rubber-bitumen compound under the Expert brand. The purpose of this mastic is the repair and installation of roofs, waterproofing of building structures, anti-corrosion protection of metal products (pipes, car bottom), gluing of roll-type materials. The composition is packed either in cans of 1.8 kg, or in buckets of 18 kg.
- The company "TekhnoNIKOL" . Has developed two types of formulations: Aquamast and TechnoNICOL 20. Compositions of both grades can be used without preliminary preparation, if necessary, dilution to the desired consistency with an organic solvent is allowed. They are used to create a waterproofing coating for structures made of different materials, suitable for roofing work. Aquamast mastic is the most suitable compound for roofing work. Packing is carried out in buckets of 3, 10 and 18 kg. Purpose of "TechnoNICOL 20" is a mastic waterproofing of building structures, buildings and other building structures. Packaging 20 kg (buckets).
- The company "HimTorgProekt" . Produces Bitumast cold-curing rubber-bitumen mastic. In addition to the main components, the mixture contains an antiseptic and a corrosion inhibitor. The composition does not contain toluene and other toxic solvents. It is used as a waterproofing coating for concrete and wood surfaces.
Suitable for corrosion protection of pipelines and metal tanks.
Features of use
Before applying the rubber-bitumen coating, any surface must be dry, thoroughly cleaned of coarse and small debris, poorly adhering pieces of the old finish. On metal structures, areas with rust must be cleaned, sand and dust must be removed from concrete surfaces, and mineral porous surfaces need preliminary soil treatment. As a rule, a company that produces mastics also produces primers that are perfectly combined with rubber-bitumen compounds.
Not only the surface of the structure and structure needs preparatory measures, but also the rubber-bitumen composition itself. Cold curing mastic, packaged in cans, is a finished product, just mix thoroughly before use.
But if it has thickened or the mixture is prepared in two stages, then you need to dilute the composition with a solvent.
There are mixtures that are applied to the surface only in a hot way, for which the mastic is heated to a certain temperature. Depending on the temperature at which the composition softens, mastics are divided into grades. For the MBR-65 brand, softening of the composition occurs when it is heated up to +65 C, for the MBR-75 brand - up to +75 C, and in order to soften the MBR-90 mastic, it will have to be heated to +90 C. For direct work, the composition is heated to 160-180? С.
There is an instruction according to which the composition is supposed to be applied in layers. If the surface area is small, then you can use a brush, roller, brush. For hard-to-reach places where a very thin layer of the composition is required, an aerosol is the best option.
For larger areas, it is more efficient to use a spray compressor.
The number of layers depends on the type of work. One layer is enough for gluing materials, and if the composition is used as an insulating coating, then it will have to be applied two, and in some cases three times. After applying each layer, it takes time to dry, at an air temperature of +20 C, the coating is completely cured no earlier than after 24 hours.
When working with mastic, you should follow all the precautions. This will help not only avoid injuries, but also get the highest quality result.
For more information on how to work with rubber-bitumen mastic, see the next video.