It is difficult to imagine a modern garden plot without a fence - beautiful, durable, protecting from prying eyes. The most important part of the fence is the installation of a gate in the entrance area. You can buy finished products, make your own, or order in a workshop according to an individual drawing. A convenient option is wooden gates, which are in no way inferior to metal ones, and even surpass them in some parameters.
Wooden gates look traditional for Russia, they can be combined with other fences adopted in the area. Thus, it will turn out to achieve the appearance of the fence, similar to dozens of others. If you want to stand out and show your status, you can use tinting or wood carving. To achieve harmony, it is enough to make a fence in the same style as a wooden house on the site.
Many masterpieces of wooden architecture have been standing under snow, rain and various temperatures for centuries. If the technology is followed correctly, the gate will last a long time. It should be borne in mind that for a windy area, solid canvases are not the best option. The style can have many variations, for example, the bottom is solid, and the top is openwork or lattice. So you will not only decorate the fence, but also reduce the wind load constantly acting on it. As a result, after a strong storm, you will not have to raise a banked fence.
Wood is a traditional building material used for thousands of years. It is easy to process and relatively inexpensive.
Wooden gates have the following advantages:
- Low cost compared to metal models.
- High strength characteristics.
- Long service life (more than 10 years), if the wood is treated with protective impregnation, it will last even longer.
- Environmental safety - the tree does not emit harmful fumes into the atmosphere.
- The ability to use different types of decor in order to add personality.
- Self-production is allowed using inexpensive building materials.
The design is not without some disadvantages:
- Rotting susceptibility - the material is destroyed by water.
- Fire hazard - the tree easily catches fire, in case of fire, the gate can burn out clean.
- The strength characteristics are lower than those of metal.
- Large weight - fences sheathed with polycarbonate or corrugated board weigh less.
- Low level of vandal resistance - Marker or spray paint marks will not be easy to remove from the surface.
For the manufacture of gates, wood varieties resistant to high humidity are used. Pine, larch and oak are mainly used. Nowadays, fences made entirely of wood are rare. Basically, a metal frame is used, and the boards are used for sheathing the sashes.
But first of all, the models are distinguished by the type of design, today only 4 varieties are common.
A universal solution, the sashes are mounted on hinged hinges, if the doors are heavy, bearing fittings are used. One door may be wider than the other. Among the advantages of swing models are low price per square meter and easy installation. The recommended width for the passage of vehicles is 3.5–4 m, the height is at least 2 m.
The support pillars must be at least 20 cm higher than the sash . To bring building materials, you will have to put the visor on supports about 4 meters high. Since fences are often warped by the wind, a moving pin will have to be fixed between the two leaves. It will go into the ground or a special cylinder and fix the doors.
To simplify operation, it is convenient to install an automatic system with which opening and closing is carried out. To control you only need a remote control with a few buttons.
There are also disadvantages to swing gates:
- free space is required to open them;
- leveling of the ground will be needed, otherwise the doors will cling to every bump;
- strong supports are needed that can withstand the weight of the structure, otherwise the gate may fall from the wind load;
- in winter you will have to clear the snow to get to the dacha, otherwise the snowdrifts will not allow the doors to open.
When opening, the door moves to the side, that is, the gate works on the principle of a wardrobe. There are both mechanical sliding gates and automatic ones. This option is often chosen for a warehouse or construction base, since it is more convenient to use this model. The maximum span is 11 meters, which makes it easy for large trucks to pass. Even after a snowfall, you don't have to worry about clearing snow.
The disadvantage is that:
- you cannot plant plants close to the fence. The sash will move to the side, there should be free space on the side near the fence;
- for mounting the rails, a prepared concrete base is needed, otherwise it will skew, the carriage will not be able to move freely;
- only an experienced craftsman will take up the installation of a recoil model, not everyone will be able to cope on their own;
- this mechanism with a carriage will cost much more than the usual hinges. The price can reach 30,000 rubles.
Previously, such modifications could only be seen in ancient castles. But now they are being released again, only the lifting of a heavy door is not done by physical force, but by means of an electrical mechanism. Products with elements of wood are rare, more often you can find metal ones. Due to the large mass, these models are used only when connected to the mains.
If there is no electricity in gardening, you probably won't want to raise and lower a heavy frame by hand. The price of such a structure is high, the installation must be carried out by a specialist.
Gate with a wicket
Any of the modifications described above can be equipped with a wicket. In this case, an opening is cut out inside the canvas and the door is mounted inside. Another option is to install the wicket as a separate sash.
To improve this structure, you can make a viewing window in the door, install a visor and an intercom.
You need to start the installation from the foundation, since dynamic and static loads will fall on the gate, the base must be very strong and heavy. The foundation can be a large wooden log, which must be dug in, and the doors must be hung on top. But a tree in dampness during temperature changes will rot in one way or another, even if it is saturated with bitumen. It is best to make the base of concrete reinforced with a metal mesh or rod.
The depth of the foundation on heaving soils should be no less than the depth of freezing. This value can be found in the tables, for example, in the North-West of the Russian Federation, this parameter is approximately 1.7 meters. To build a reliable foundation, you need to dig a rectangular hole of sufficient depth. Roofing material or film is placed on the bottom of the hole, large boulders are placed on top, then poured with concrete.
Further, the installation of a wooden post should be carried out using a level, then carefully pour on the sides with the same solution, possibly mixed with gravel or small stones.
The pillars on which the gate will be held are laid out of ordinary solid bricks, reinforced concrete are also suitable. The metal supports for strengthening the door leaves must also be filled with cement mortar to prevent the structure from swinging.
At the factory, hinges or places for their attachment can be welded to metal posts. If solid brick is used, it is necessary to fix the hinges even during laying. For wooden modifications, the hinges are screwed onto nuts, it is advisable to pre-cover the wood with an antiseptic. The doors must be installed at a distance of at least 50 mm from the ground, otherwise the gate will not be able to open with any snow or even fallen leaves.
The gate frame can be made of wood or picket fence, connecting its elements to metal corners or without them. In the second case, it is desirable to connect opposite corners with struts. It is possible to connect the tree on a thorn or in a "dovetail".
A welded structure is more reliable, a similar product can be made from a metal profile using welding.
How to make a swing gate for a summer residence with your own hands, see the next video.
You can decorate any gate with your own hands, even old ones, and you don't have to spend a lot of money.
The main methods of registration:
- Staining - regular stain or Pinotex can transform ordinary pine wood into oak or ash. Also, the paint layer will protect the surface from weathering and pollution. For the aging effect, in addition to paint, you need copper sulfate, which will give the wood a grayish tint.
- Antique painting - usually the pattern is placed on the inside. But if you need to formalize the entrance to any institution, the decoration can be outside. Most likely, you will need the help of a professional artist; to create an unusual effect, you can use Khokhloma painting.
- Finishing with forged elements - attracts attention, creates a sense of respectability. If the upper part of the doors is made of metal lace, the door will better transmit light and be less exposed to wind load.
It is worth noting that forged elements are resistant to corrosion, but in the country, few will dare to use them. Such decorations will be expensive and will attract intruders if the homeowner does not live on the suburban estate year-round.
- Carving - allows you to turn an ordinary product into a work of art. Only an experienced person can handle carving, but he will need a set of chisels - special tools. It is advantageous to order the application of carving in the workshop, where it will be performed on a CNC machine, which will make it possible to bring to life the most complex relief. Handwork will be more expensive, and now few craftsmen own this technique. But in the store you can buy ready-made carved panels and attach them to the canvases with your own hands.
- Wood sheathing - if the gate has a metal frame, and it is planned to close it with wood from above, there are many decoration options. You can fix the boards horizontally, vertically, diagonally or fancy, alternating between different directions of laying the material.
Many summer residents leave positive reviews about wooden gates, as they are durable and comfortable. Elements of iron forging on them can serve for many years. But there are exceptions, for example, some complain that the sash and constipation are twisted, it is difficult to open them in the spring. Most often, this phenomenon occurs in wetlands and in the presence of errors at the installation stage.
The wood on the gate will be exposed to temperatures, precipitation and corrosive environments. Therefore, it must be impregnated with an antiseptic in 2-3 layers. To exclude a fire when the wiring is closed, it is necessary to treat the wood with a fire retardant or sheathed with iron strips in the places of the wiring being laid. Self-tapping screws to create a product, it is advisable to use galvanized or brass, otherwise, under the influence of moisture, rust will form, which will appear on the wood.
Nuts, bolts, and washers can be used to ensure a strong hold. Resinous types of wood are suitable for the manufacture of gates, birch is easy to process, but quickly decays. The main thing is that the structure is resistant to dynamic loads. It is impossible to predict how many times the flaps will open in a month and a year, so it’s better to make them reliable right away. From the automation, you can choose a closer designed for outdoor use. The closer will make the closing smoother, will not allow the shutters to vibrate from any gusts of wind.
One of the options for light gates, which will be less affected by wind loads, is with a wooden frame upholstered with a netting. Air flows will pass through the mesh cells, and there will be less load on the leafs of the sash and support pillars. Even if this option does not look as beautiful as made of wood, it does not require an expensive foundation.