Any owner of suburban real estate seeks to bring comfort and beauty not only inside his own house, but also in the local area. The implementation of such a desire is costly not only in time, but also in money, therefore it is especially important to provide for any little things.
A properly constructed storm sewer will help protect the site from destruction.
According to statistics, the roof of a summer house or house takes up about 100 cubic meters of precipitation within one year. Several times more water gets on the soil around the structure, which can threaten the subsidence of the foundation and the destruction of house buildings.
Storm sewage is a system by which the main stream of water in the form of precipitation is quickly and at a certain place. Such a drainage system must necessarily be organized in a private house, large warehouse and shopping malls, at various factories and in places where cars are congregated. Places where petrochemical products and various hazardous industries can get into rainwater and melt wastewater should also have a high-quality drainage system.
The principle of operation of the storm water system is to "collect" water on the surface of the earth, purify it and transport it to a special reservoir for further use. Such a system includes:
- distribution well;
- sand separators;
- grease separators;
- filter adsorber;
- control well.
The collection of water into the well takes place through special open or closed gutters. The cleaning itself begins with a distribution tank, from which the liquid enters the desander. Large particles of sand and small debris are filtered in them, and then grease separators, which are also called oil-petrol traps, come into play.
The next in line is usually an adsorber filter, which cleans the water from petrochemical products and sends it to the control well. Treated waste water can be used for irrigation or filling various reservoirs. In some cases it is possible to install an additional UV ring and storage tank, but this is not required.
All components of the storm sewer system are combined into one line, and most of them, including conductive pipes, are buried underground. This arrangement of large drainage components does not deform the roadbed and allows you to save maximum space on the site. If it is not possible to deepen the supply open troughs made of concrete, asbestos or plastic, then they are placed in special trenches with a slope towards the distribution well.
The drainage system is designed in accordance with SNiP 2.04.03-85 individually for each site. Design documentation is developed on the basis of SanPiN 18.104.22.1680-00 and GOST 3634-99. The best option would be to entrust the development of such a complex system to specialists.
In this case, you can get a guarantee of reliability and durability, the tanks will be accurately calculated for the required amount of precipitation, and the pipes will be dug to the depth that will allow the water not to freeze in the autumn-winter period and not to deform the system.
A simple point storm drain is several storm water inlets installed under the gutters and connected into one system. The main element of such a system is sand traps of various designs. The purpose of such a system is to collect excess water falling from the roof and transport it to a reservoir. The linear type of sewage system is more complex in design and purpose - precipitation is collected not only from the building, but also from the soil on the estate site. In this case, in addition to the storm water inlets, a network of drainage pipes or trays and the main collector are mounted.
Depending on the type of system, storm sewage can be:
Special pallets can be installed near the entrance to the building and the fence gate, which will prevent soil leaching and maintain the integrity of the structures for a long time.
Professionals recommend the additional installation of revision wells in large areas - with their help, you can carry out preventive cleaning of the sewage system and check the correct operation of the entire system.
Also, storm sewers differ in the type of location to the soil surface. In this case, it happens:
The simplest drainage method is an external storm system. The result is achieved with minimal cost and maximum design simplicity. An open storm drain includes only two elements - linear drainage systems in the form of ground gutters and sand traps deepened into the ground. The gutters are located under the gutters and along the paths in the blind area. Such a system often drains the collected moisture onto the lawn or flower bed, and in cases where there is a small reservoir on the site, the water is sent there.
Internal storm water drainage, according to professional builders, is preferable, as it guarantees the absence of puddles on the paths and lawns. However, such a system closed under the soil layer requires high costs and the involvement of specialists for calculations and work. Compared to an open storm drain, a closed type of sewage system has a large number of elements.
Linear gutters installed on a slope and storm inlets are closed with additional gratings. Such gratings do not allow large debris and leaves to clog underground pipes, and can also have a decorative function. Door pallets protect the gate and porch, while lawn grates protect the low-lying plants.
A hidden underground pipe system with a minimum number of bends at a slope supplies water to the collector. Throughout the entire length of the system, additional inspection chambers can be installed, which are used for cleaning and repairing the sewage system. The accumulated liquid in the collector can be used for irrigation or drained into certain artificial reservoirs.
A mixed system is a compromise between open and closed. In this case, closed elements provide drainage from roof gutters, and open gutters are installed along fences, platforms and roads. This combination allows you to significantly save money and not lose in quality.
In addition to conventional systems that naturally transport water due to the slope of the pipes, there are other options that help the flow of water due to their design features. For example, a gravitational-vacuum drainage system allows you to "suck" water from the roof due to the difference in the heights of the funnel and drain. Such a system is also called a siphon system, since it is built on the same principle as a siphon in an ordinary sink. Another example is a pressure storm sewer, the movement of water in which is carried out by pumps installed in certain areas. Additionally, such pumps are equipped with waste grinders to prevent blockages inside underground pipes.
In order to correctly choose the structural elements of the network and sewage structures from the whole variety presented on the construction market, it is necessary to decide on their design and material.
- Gutters and storm water inlets. Water flow paths can be made of concrete and plastic. Do not choose metal options, as they not only corrode when interacting with moisture, but also make a lot of noise when hit by rain and gusts of wind when installed above the ground. Concrete structures are more reliable and have a longer service life, however, their diameters are strictly regulated, so it is not always possible to install them on the site. Plastic gutters are easy to cut and align, and plastic gutters can have any well depth. If the blind area has already been installed, then such gutters can be easily installed around its perimeter without dismantling.
- Lattices. This protective element allows less frequent cleaning of the system, moreover, the grid covering the top of the groove eliminates the risk of stumbling. Cast iron grilles serve for a long time and are very reliable, but they require repainting every 2-3 years. Steel protection of rainwater wells is not very practical, as it rusts very quickly. Aluminum is ideal. Such structures have a long service life and look great throughout the entire service life, but they are much more expensive. The size of the holes of any grid should not be too small, as it will have to pass a lot of liquid at one time. But too large cells are also unacceptable - they will let debris through, which can lead to blockages.
- Pipes. PVC pipes are the best solution for storm drains in a suburban area. Unlike asbestos and cast iron pipes, their corrosion is minimal, and the smooth inner surface practically eliminates the risk of overgrowing with silt. The smallest diameter of such pipes is 110 mm, and with a large roof area and a large number of paths, their diameter can reach 150 mm.
- Collector. This element is present in closed and mixed storm sewer systems. It is a large container in which the bulk of water accumulates. Such a well can be built from rings and cushions made of concrete, or from a ring with a bottom (in the event that further use of the collected moisture is planned). If it is planned to simply divert the precipitation from the site, then the best option would be to build a well without a bottom in sandy soil. The main thing is not to get into the aquifer, otherwise the reservoir will turn into an ordinary well.
The plastic collector is assembled using PVC molds. It is perfect for areas where surface groundwater occurs. The accumulated liquid is removed using a pipeline system or used for household needs on the site itself.
In addition to the usual collector, you can equip a drainage system that dumps water into the ground. A special plastic container is placed horizontally in a layer of soil that absorbs water well, for example, in sand. It makes no sense to organize such a system in clay soil, since it practically does not absorb moisture. The walls of the container have many small holes through which water gradually seeps into the soil, preventing its oversaturation.
In addition to the above method of water drainage, the collector can be connected to the riser of the central sewerage system and drain water into specially designated reservoirs and treatment facilities. If you install a simple submersible pump connected to an irrigation system inside such a well, you can save well on paying water bills.
Installing a storm drain for the yard on your own site is a rather laborious process. The best solution is to hire professionals, but if you want to save money, you can do all the work yourself.
Such work does not require special skills, and it is carried out according to the algorithm described below.
- A diagram is drawn up on the scale of the entire site with buildings. It is good if it is done with a graphic editor, but you can also use ordinary paper with a pencil.
- The lowest point in the section where the collector will be installed is determined. If the area seems fairly level, then you can simply choose a convenient location.
- All catchment points are marked: roof gutters, concrete areas, gates and walkways. After that, a system of the resulting pipeline with all elements and connections is drawn in the drawing. You should not lay many pipe turns in it - this makes it difficult for water to flow through them. If you cannot avoid them, then the best option would be a 90-degree turn.
- After the drawing is ready, and all inaccuracies are corrected, you can calculate the amount of materials required. If a hardware store or market is within walking distance of the site, then it is better not to buy additional material than to purchase a surplus, since there is no need to select materials by color and pattern.
- First of all, the installation of the roofing part of the stormwater is carried out. In the openings of the overlap, storm water inlets are planted on bituminous mastic, mounted on the suspension of the gutter and risers, and a unit for discharging water into the collector or tray is organized.
- On the site, marking is carried out with the help of tensioned ropes, and all the necessary trenches and grooves are pulled out. To prevent the water in the pipes from freezing even in winter, you need to dig to the depth of freezing of the soil or insulate the entire system - otherwise, the sewage system will not function from late autumn to early spring. Sand is poured into the bottom of the trenches and compacted tightly. It will avoid subsidence of the soil, which can lead to a change in the level of inclination of the pipe and the formation of a blockage. Crushed stone is poured onto the sand with a layer thickness of 5-8 cm, which, on the contrary, protects the pipes from swelling of the soil.
- First, the collector is mounted and concreted, as well as wells and storm water inlets. If PVC elements are used, then they must be pressed down with a load until the solution completely solidifies, otherwise they will "emerge" from it. After that, the pipe system itself is mounted. Before digging in the dug areas, the sewage system is checked for tightness and operability, after which you can fill everything up with earth.
In order for the installed storm sewer system to meet all standards and requirements, it is necessary to equip special security zones. It is forbidden to make garbage dumps in them, to build both permanent country houses and any temporary buildings. In security zones, parking is not arranged and plants are not planted closer than 3 meters from the pipe. It is much easier to make a security zone on a plot or a summer residence, since the requirements for them are softer. But parking above the pipe system of such a sewage system is still not recommended, otherwise the risk of collapse of the entire structure increases.
The storm drain, like any drainage system, should be subject to regular maintenance:
- periodic inspection and cleaning of all collectors and wells (all blockages must be broken through, debris removed);
- general flushing of the entire system every few years (3-4 years).
In addition to removing debris and blockages, it is necessary to control the level of silt at the bottom of the wells, which can get into underground systems and cause blockages. The well is cleaned of sludge using an automatic fecal pump.
System cleaning consists of:
- preparation (pumping out all the water from the system using a pump fixed 0.5 m above the bottom of the well);
- cleaning itself (flushing the system with clean water using the same pump).
If the storm water is heavily soiled, the procedure can be repeated several times.
In order to carry out a major cleaning of the entire system, it is necessary to have a special pneumatic installation with various nozzles for cleaning underground pipes. Most often, specialists are invited for this.
Open-type storm drains in winter are simply covered with a layer of ice and snow, which can be defrosted manually, or you can wait for natural thawing with the arrival of spring. But in a closed storm sewer system that is not buried to a depth greater than the freezing depth of the soil, it will not work to melt the ice manually. Therefore, such a system can be "mothballed" before the onset of heat. It is necessary to clean it, drain the excess water, leaving no more than three quarters of the water, and close all the inlets of such a system.
A properly organized storm sewage system on the site, after which the necessary maintenance is carried out, will not only remove excess water to protect buildings and plantings, but also become an additional decorative element for the yard and the house. The roof, equipped with suspended gutters and a riser, looks complete, and the sound of water flowing down such pipes in the rain will serve as an excellent accompaniment for a restful sleep.
In the next video, you will find the installation of a storm sewer.