There is a huge amount of building and finishing materials. But even against this background, geological textiles stand out favorably. It is important to understand the properties of such a coating and the features of its application.
Geotextile is a coating (canvas) that has become widely known only in the last ten years. Previously, even the most experienced builders and homeowners did not know about such products. The benefit of such material is the effective solution to many everyday problems. Construction on plots and their arrangement are greatly simplified.
Geotextiles are created from various threads, and this feature should be paid attention to first of all.
Geotextiles are made from a variety of materials, most often polyester or polypropylene. The technology involves the use of woven or non-woven methods. Strict adherence to technological standards allows you to achieve excellent performance and long-term use. In the retail network, geotextiles according to GOST can be represented by products of various formats - from 200 to 550 cm. The length of the rolls varies from 10 to 150 m, the thickness and density are very diverse.
Regardless of the specific type, this material is different:
- excellent elasticity;
- uniform distribution of the load generated by bulk solids;
- resistance to oxidation;
- blocking the germination of weeds.
The device of geotextile decking is also attractive because it allows water to pass through. The main characteristics of the material make it possible to use it in construction, medicine, agricultural and clothing industries. The reinforced substance withstands a much higher mechanical load than the simple version. A safety net is provided even under heavy paving slabs, it will definitely not fall down if a protective layer is laid. Geotextiles are also suitable for the formation of underground drainage systems.
Woven geotextile or geotextile is made in the same way as the simplest sewing fabric. The interlacing of threads can be simple or complex, but in any case it is organized according to a certain pattern. Even just by looking at the patterns formed by the fibers, it is not difficult to detect its specific appearance.
Polyester or glass are taken as raw materials. In order for the canvas to be of high quality, it is impregnated with hardening mixtures.
When the processing is done, the textiles are passed through special calenders. There, the threads partially melt, and the outer surface becomes stronger. The fabric of the woven design allows you to separate the layers of materials, providing:
- formation of tracks;
- strengthening of structures;
- even distribution of loads.
Non-woven geotextiles are made on the basis of polyester and polypropylene fibers, such a fabric is obtained by the needle-punched method. In appearance, this product is very similar to a simple felt. The work begins with the formation of loose layers, which include fibers of different lengths. The cotton mass is compacted with serrated needles that intertwine the fibers and connect them. The result is a material that effectively permeates water through it.
In addition, the needle-puncher is highly durable and has a long service life. Additional strengthening of the canvases is made by adding geological grids. To obtain a thermally bonded geotextile, the pellets are melted and extruded. Then the canvas is covered with microscopic fibers. When such a coating is applied, the material is again treated with significant heat.
Melting of the filaments leads to their sintering. The level of strength of the thermally bonded material is higher than that of other nonwoven varieties. Such products can be used to separate the bulk layers, they are very elastic and can withstand significant loads. Geotextile fabric can also be made by knitting. In production, rolls from 200 to 520 cm are made, the material is wound from 30 to 130 linear meters. m.
The choice of a suitable option is determined by the scale of the work performed. Less waste means better choices. Black and white types of geotextiles are in wide demand today, they are made from propylene with fine pores. Such material is used in large-scale capital construction, landscape design, as well as the cultivation of berry and vegetable crops.
The advantages of the described solution are:
- optimal product density;
- the ability to carry loads up to 2 kPa;
- the same strength in the longitudinal and transverse planes;
- suitability for filtration;
- perfectly matched elongation to break.
It is difficult to install and continues to easily filter liquid even when exposed to significant vibration and high soil pressure. The elastic and durable material easily tolerates the action of strong acids, caustic alkalis and many other substances of artificial and natural origin. The black color of geotextiles means that it can be used in the construction of houses, roads, and hydraulic engineering complexes. Bulk materials are evenly distributed and will not settle even to a small extent.
Heat-treated geotextiles are by default classified as polypropylene-based needle punched materials. Its fibers can have theoretically unlimited length. An increase in load tolerance is achieved through a homogeneous material structure. It stretches easily up to 50% and does not tear up to this limit. Water, acids, alkalis are not dangerous, and plant roots will not grow through such geotextiles.
These characteristics define the main area of application of heat-treated textiles:
- soil reinforcement;
- covering waterproofing membranes from destruction;
- creating a green roof;
- formation of landscapes;
- drainage of foundation walls at various buildings.
Construction geotextiles are not necessarily heat-treated or needle-punched, but it is these varieties that are considered by experts to be the most convenient and durable. The use of this material in construction helps to build not only houses, the contribution of geotextiles to the construction of roads, the laying of sidewalks and alleys is great. Along with the construction option, sometimes furniture and packaging geotextiles are also distinguished.
To understand exactly what kind of modification is needed, you should familiarize yourself with the basic characteristics of this material. And it's worth starting with the strength of the geotextile fabric.
Indicators and properties
The performance of the 200g / m2 thermally bonded needle punched geotextile is truly impressive. As a rule, this material is made from virgin polypropylene without additional additives. The purpose of use is the construction of layers and interlayers of all kinds, including in the construction of highways. The peculiarity of the feedstock is reflected in the color of this material. Additional heat treatment slightly improves tear resistance compared to standard needle punching solution.
The coating can not only guarantee a strength of 200 kN / m2, but it will also calmly spend under the scorching sun, in the open air, for at least 30 days. It is not capable of becoming a receptacle for mold and does not weaken mechanically even in frosts of 60 degrees. Passing and filtering water, such geotextiles are not clogged with silt themselves. During the entire period of use, the appearance of harmful emissions or destruction by ultraviolet rays is excluded. Other technical properties of the material are also at a high level.
The tensile strength (elongation) is 120% compared to the initial length. This means that the substance will cope with the task, even with a very significant mechanical load. Zero hygroscopicity, that is, minimal water absorption, allows you to be sure of the reliability of the product used. The maximum unevenness in weight is only 7 - 10%. The perpendicular filtering coefficient at a load of 2 kPa is 8 - 20 m / day.
The density of the material directly affects how it will be used. So, canvases with a density of 150 g per 1 m2 are in demand among summer residents and owners of home gardens. By adding 50 g, textiles can be used as the basis for foundations, walkways and artificial reservoirs.
The material with a density of 0.25 and 0.3 kg is equally good in road construction, only for different purposes - separation of soil and bedding of the railway track.
The width of geotextile fabrics is usually the same and is equal to 430 cm. But a number of relatively new developments in width reach 5 or even 5.4 m. The length in almost every case is taken at 100 linear meters. m. As a result, the total mass of especially dense textiles can be significant. At enterprises, the thickness of the canvases is measured both with a simple layout and with a load of a standardized value, since both indicators are important.
The thickness of the geotextile can vary from 0.8 to 1.8 mm in the absence of a load and from 2.4 to 3.8 mm when exposed to a force of 2 kPa. The test procedure and their smallest nuances are very strictly spelled out in state standards, so you should not be afraid of any problems and incorrect estimates.
It is important to bear in mind that thickness and density are interrelated concepts, and for the most difficult conditions of use, thick geotextiles will be more effective than thin ones.
Calculation of the required quantity
Having dealt with the linear dimensions of the canvases and their technical properties, it is necessary to assess the need for geotextiles for a particular case. This avoids the purchase of both insufficient and excessive quantities of goods. On unprepared foundations such as embankments, the geological sheet is laid between the soles of the slopes along carefully planned terrain areas. The canvases overlap each other by 200 - 300 mm. When the placement of anchors is planned in a certain area, this indicator grows by another 50 mm.
The overlaps for water outlets are taken equal to 0.15 m. Additionally, the diameter of the pipes themselves, which are insulated with textile blocks, is taken into account. When installing on a base, it is useful to reserve 20 - 30 cm, this will ensure that there are no problems during operation. When preparing garden paths and areas, they usually start by carefully calculating their own area. Then the result is divided by the area of a running meter of geological textiles.
What is it needed for?
Geotextile fabric is widely used in the construction of the foundation of various buildings and structures. Its tasks can be varied:
- cover from moisture;
- separation of bulk seams and prevention of their gradual siltation;
- maintaining the uniformity of the load exerted by building structures on soil masses;
- improving the quality of crushed stone layers and strengthening drainage;
- assistance to reinforcing structures and technical solutions.
Such an application requires a reinforced cloth that lasts a long time, does not deteriorate from water and does not rot from freezing. But the hardening layer only slightly improves the characteristics of the material itself, and its density is of decisive importance. Therefore, in order to arrange drainage and remove moisture under the base of the house, you need to take a canvas with indicators of 0.15 - 0.2 kg per 1 sq. m. Fabric with a weight of 0.25 - 0.3 kg is recommended for external protection of foundations and delimiting layers of crushed stone and sand. To disperse the load on the soil and block the action of heaving soil, use textiles at least 0.35 kg per 1 sq. m.
Increasing the bearing capacity of the soil and blocking its swelling under poorly buried structures is achieved by removing up to 100 cm of soil. This layer is replaced by nonmetallic bulk minerals. As a reinforcement, geotextiles are taken from polypropylene monotonous threads, such a step also prevents mixing of earth masses and backfill. The same material is recommended to be used to cover engineering communications from seasonal ground movements.
Drainage layers should be laid with geological fabric from above and below, then they will not overflow with silt.
Perforated drainage can also become clogged with muddy deposits. To avoid this, a nonwoven polymer material with a specific gravity of 0.2 kg per m2 is wound. The same compound (or slightly less dense) is used to protect the liquid and thermal insulation of strip-type foundations. When digging trenches, textiles with a minimum density of 0.3 kg per 1 m2 are placed on the sand cushion after tamping. This solution allows you to simultaneously block soaking of the basement sole and make the bedding stronger.
If the foundation is constructed from precast concrete, the textiles are glued to the blocks using bituminous mastics or other water-resistant mixtures. It is very important to seal all seams between adjacent webs. Foundations on piles require the use of a canvas only in the case of a plinth. When the piles are driven in, the gap between them is freed from the soil. An overlapping layer is mounted on a strip of geotextile:
- crushed stone;
- simple cement.
During the construction of the foundation, hydro-penetrating material based on continuous polypropylene threads is mainly used. An alternative to it is the use of needle-punched polyester fabric in the form of the same endless fibers. Staple and woven coatings cannot be used for this purpose. Drainage characteristics and material density are decisive for the final selection. The canvases supplied from Western European countries are generally of high quality, but transport costs make them very expensive.
The choice of geotextile fabric for the pond has its own characteristics. The material that gardeners and gardeners usually take to protect against weeds, in this case, turns out to be overly thin. It is necessary to take a coating with a greater thickness, externally resembling felt, which was subjected to thermal sintering. The advantage of this option is:
- strength (complexity of rupture);
- no risk of rotting;
- Relative softness and duplication of relief, actual adaptation to it.
The role of geological textiles in the formation of artificial ponds is not limited to covering waterproofing from destruction and strengthening of pits. It is very important that this agent blocks water bloom, and also prevents sand and pebbles from collecting in some places. The waterproofing film laid on the bottom prevents water from leaving the reservoir. But only covering it from below with geological textiles makes it possible to avoid breaking through the protection by plant roots and sharp edges of stones. The reinforcing function is no less significant.
The crumbling of the walls of the excavation dug in dry sand is almost inevitable. If sandy rocks get wet, they will erode. An additional negative factor is the installation of heavy waterproofing of the walls. Geotextile reliably suppresses all these influences and processes, making the home pond a stable reservoir. It will even be possible to move along the substrate, performing various work and without fear of damaging the main part of the pit.
Prevention of water bloom and reducing the need for bottom cleaning is achieved by using dark varieties of pond textiles.
In any case, it is laid in a prepared bowl. Since it is impossible to predict its exact volume in advance, there is no need to purchase a product in advance. Before the start of the layout, all sharp objects are removed from the bottom, and those irregularities in the relief, which are not necessary, are poured with sand and soil or removed. As in the preparation of the foundations, the work is carried out with a run of strips on each other equal to 150-200 mm.
Garden geotextile is, first of all, the so-called dornit, or non-woven needle-punched material . Do not confuse it with the Dornit trademark. Absolute resistance to putrefactive processes and pathological fungi, aggressive agricultural chemicals and weeds, the ability to adapt to a given shape make dornits very popular.
Using garden geotextiles, you can provide:
- full drainage of moisture;
- air circulation in the soil;
- delineation of layers of the earth, differing in composition and equally necessary;
- retention of small fragments of soil;
- prevention of soil erosion;
- preventing the negative effects of harmful insects, soil frosts or hail.
This material was highly appreciated not only by the owners of gardens and vegetable gardens, but also by landscape designers. After all, it is necessary to protect compositions from various plants from weeds to the same degree, or even more, than the main plantings. To solve the problem is simple: the geotextile applied to the soil is equipped with recesses for the germination of only useful plants. It can be considered a high-tech analogue of such a procedure as mulching. In addition, by varying the placement of textiles, you can redirect the roots in the desired direction.
Garden geotextiles are good for sheltering fruit crops in winter or protecting them from sunburn on hot days. But besides agricultural and decorative use, its possibilities are great when strengthening slopes. A simple earthen slope inevitably collapses under the influence of precipitation and wind.
In the absence of protective measures, landslides and landslides will begin very soon. And before that, the surface will lose its harmonious appearance.
A prerequisite for the protection of slopes with a geological sheet is its combination with volumetric geogrids. The lining provides separation of substances and helps the filler stay in the cells. A lot of water passes through the textile barrier, so it can be considered a reverse filter. Laying is carried out in the form of layers at different heights, and thanks to it, the slope becomes mechanically more durable. Very good results are obtained with tilts up to 60 degrees.
Geotextile is used not only when working with soil and water bodies, another of its purposes is to equip an exploited roof. A number of builders and architects have long paid attention to such material, since it successfully resists a large number of harmful factors.
To meet the emerging demand, for example, TechnoNikol company, which was able to offer a durable and inexpensive needle-punched product, went. Strengthening its performance is done by thermal bonding.
Geotextiles are especially popular when organizing green roofs, where it plays the role of a filtering layer.
Thanks to the non-woven fabric, weeds cannot penetrate into the main structure, and the overall service life increases dramatically. On simple flat roofs, the geotextile serves as a reliable protection for waterproofing membranes. It is advisable to cover them not only from above, but also from below. Needle-punched rolls are useful as a lining under soft shingles placed on roof slopes. The side with which the geotextile is placed downward does not really matter.
To tie the canvases, they are welded, stitched or attached to each other with construction brackets. For the welding connection, an overlap of 100 mm is required. The burner will need to be driven about 200 mm from the surface; the grip radius of the heated area is more important than the heating force. The porous structure almost completely eliminates the risk of clogging. Even a prolonged increase in load does not negatively affect the material.
Overview of manufacturers
Having found out the main characteristics of geotextiles and its scope of application, you need to understand the most preferred brands. Rather different types of raw materials and processing technologies can be used in production, which greatly affects the quality of the finished product. The Technonikol company supplies polyester materials with a density of 0.1 - 0.2 kg per 1 m2. They are obtained using needle-punched technology. The rolls sold vary in width from 2 to 6 m.
You can buy Texpol brand materials in Russia for a variety of purposes. They have a density of 0.15 to 0.6 kg per m2. The Kanvalan and Geotex brands imply the use of 100% polypropylene and needle-punched processing. A similar Russian product with the same characteristics can be offered by the Austrian concern Polyleft and the Belarusian company Pinema.
Among the products from non-CIS countries, the Taipar geotextile (Luxembourg) has a significant position in the market. It is obtained from polypropylene by passing it through calenders. The original material is distinguished by the stiffness of the silvery cloth and the coincidence of mechanical characteristics, resistance to deformation along and across. According to the developers, resistance to a variety of potent substances of artificial and organic origin is guaranteed. Rotting is excluded, and the service life before decomposition in the soil layer exceeds 100 years.
Geotextiles made in Luxembourg can withstand extreme climatic conditions, including both cold and heat. It does not decompose when exposed to ultraviolet radiation. But the light resistance of polypropylene is still not great enough.
Therefore, do not leave the canvas uncovered in the air for more than 24 hours. No harmful substances are released during operation.
The Russian product "Kanvalan-MF" (also non-woven) is made using a needle-punched technique. Some of the products are additionally subjected to calendering; there are products with different levels of breaking load. The guaranteed service life is from 50 years, while various subspecies cope better with specific tasks:
- strengthening and protection;
- separation of materials of different fractions;
- filtration of liquid and separation of substances;
- drainage and demarcation of soil layers;
- prevention of erosion on slopes.
How to apply correctly?
Even the best and most reliable geological textiles must be used in the right way. Violation of the technology of use not only degrades the quality of the created layer, but can also cause serious problems. Any underlying surface must be clean, debris and plant roots are unacceptable. In most cases, textile fabrics are laid with an overlap. Only with the direct indication of the manufacturer or by the decision of experienced engineers can it be carried out differently.
On a simple surface, the roll run is 0.3 m, and on uneven areas this distance is increased to 0.5 m. Please note that the most economical welded joint works well even with the application of only 0.1 m of material. It is recommended not to rely on your own knowledge and luck, but to invite experienced craftsmen who have already had experience with geotextiles before. It is recommended to fill up the canvas with special caterpillar equipment, and all the work must be done filigree.
The slightest mistake will lead to a breakthrough of even the most durable types of geotextiles and to the need to redo everything from the beginning.
The name of the product should not be taken simply as a marketing ploy, it indirectly indicates the characteristics of the product. So, geotextile is excellent for reinforcement and strengthening. At the same time, geotextiles are recommended as underlying layers. For drainage, it is unacceptable to use any natural thread, even in the smallest amount. They will quickly rot in the soil and only spoil everything.
Not suitable for drainage and thermally bonded geotextile. Such a product is very dense and is not at all intended for the passage of water. The average thickness for drainage structures is optimal: they will not tear, as they are very thin, but they will not be filled with silt, like a large layer.
To apply geotextiles from weeds, all harmful plants are cut in the spring, but their roots are left in the ground.
15 cm of sand or a little less gravel is poured over the canvas. It is advisable to do such manipulations where landing is not planned in the coming months. It is best to combine technological weed control and natural soil rest. She is saturated with organic matter that appears during the decomposition of the remaining shoots. The first landing can be done in a year.
Under the paving slabs, textile fabrics must have a density of 0.15 kg per 1 m2. Only under this condition will they be guaranteed to transfer all arising loads. Non-woven fabrics, as well as cores, are not suitable for this task.
The minimum recommended roll run is 200 mm. The textiles should go strictly vertically on the sides of the groove.
See the next video for how to use geotextiles.