Balconies, although they are a very functional and irreplaceable part of the apartment, yet not all houses are equipped with them. Often there are layouts where the balcony is simply absent. But do not despair - you can also design a balcony with your own hands.
Let us consider in more detail all the details regarding the construction of balconies, as well as the main stages of insulation, decoration and arrangement.
Construction options and designs
You can make a balcony with your own hands, and it is not as difficult as it might seem at first glance. First you need to decide on the functional value of the building, based on which the size of the balcony and the place where it will be located will be determined.
The location of the apartment on the ground floor provides a unique opportunity to simplify the construction - the base of the balcony can be supported by stable columns. There are also several pleasant bonuses in the form of building a large cellar or even a separate entrance to the apartment.
The construction of a hinged balcony may be impossible due to the threat to the integrity of the facade and the entire structure of the dwelling, therefore, the concrete base should be made with a separate fastener and additional supports supporting it from below.
Fasteners can be designed both in the horizontal version, where the lower and upper parts are simply attached to the facade of the house, or have corner supports, which, in this case, are the best, most secure, option.
How to get a building permit?
Hand-made construction of a balcony will not be possible without obtaining the appropriate permission. It will be necessary to collect a package of certain documents and provide them to the necessary authorities.
List of documents required for building a balcony with your own hand:
- Apartment plan and living quarters project.
- Balcony construction project (it is better to entrust this stage to professionals).
- Written and legally certified building permit from neighbors.
Next, you need to contact lawyers for advice and receiving a notification that the construction is completely legal. For illegal construction, the court may impose penalties and demolition of the structure.
After obtaining permission from a lawyer, you will need to contact the BTI on the same issue.
In no case should you neglect legal assistance, since to add a balcony to an apartment on the ground floor, you may also need permission to use the land under it (purchase or privatization).
Before starting construction, it is necessary to prepare an appropriate project in which the main parameters and features of the future construction will be observed and indicated. The balcony is no exception and also needs to be designed.
Consider the features and procedure for designing a balcony:
- First of all, before starting the design, it will be necessary to collect some information regarding the functional features of the house itself. It is necessary to clarify whether additional buildings are allowed according to technical data, as well as the parameters that a building may have;
- Based on the data obtained, a rough design of the balcony room is carried out, which is necessary for presentation to lawyers in order to obtain a building permit. Further, the project is being finalized, improved and presented in this form in the BTI;
- When designing, absolutely everything must be taken into account: the stability of the structure, the severity of the materials to be used, as well as equipping the balcony with appropriate fasteners. In order for the design to be reliable, it is necessary to take into account all aspects and reflect them as accurately as possible in the drawings, according to which the construction will be carried out.
How to make a balcony on a foundation?
Balcony on the foundation, naturally built only in apartments on the ground floor. The structure is rather cumbersome, but its scheme is unlikely to be too complicated.
The construction of balconies of this type is carried out on a strip foundation, which is a kind of closed loop made of reinforced concrete beams. This foundation must be erected under the load-bearing walls and foundations of the future structure.
After the foundation is erected, marking is done, all the necessary earthworks are completed, then a strong frame is welded, a screed is poured, walls are constructed, glazing is installed, and external and internal finishing work is carried out.
The external balcony is called the frame of the room taken out to the street. It is a separate part and has nothing to do with the walls of the room, except for the adjacent central wall, in which the entrance is located.
To build a remote balcony, it is necessary to build a frame and take care of the reliability of the fasteners, especially the supporting ones. After the construction of the frame, it will be necessary to build a floor slab, it is best that it be reinforced with reinforcement and made of concrete.
It is necessary to make an open balcony screed for the reliability of the floors.
Good ventilation is necessary to ensure the circulation of fresh air in the room. Few people think about this when building balconies, so it often happens that a damp smell appears in an insulated room, fungal microorganisms develop and windows often fog up.
There are two types of balcony ventilation:
- special valves responsible for the supply and exhaust of air, mounted in the frame of the window frame on the balcony;
- electric fan.
It is worth noting that the fan system is more powerful.
Balcony in a private house or in the country
Undoubtedly, when building a private or country house, the thought of a balcony involuntarily pops up, because what can be more beautiful than balcony gatherings on warm summer evenings. Let us consider in more detail the options for building balconies in private houses.
Ideally, the base of the balcony is the same concrete slab that should be laid initially during the construction of the house, since this will make the structure more reliable. But there are also options for completing a balcony, the basis of which is based, for example, on columns. Thus, the lower part of the balcony becomes a kind of visor.
It is not at all necessary to build a stone or concrete version, it is enough just to make a solid foundation. The railing of a balcony in a private house may well be decorative - forged or cast openwork, depending on individual preferences.
It is much easier to make a balcony in a wooden country house, both during the construction of the house and to attach it after its completion. The wooden base is supported by vertical beams or corner brackets located underneath.
But you should be careful when choosing wood for the balcony floor - it must be strong and reliable.
How to conduct the light?
Often, balconies are not only insulated, but they also try to equip them with such a functional thing as lighting. But how easy is it to light the balcony without harming the repair and interior of the apartment? Let's take a closer look at the easiest ways.
First of all, you need to decide on the place from which the line will be drawn. There are three options:
- apartment panel - the lighting will be powerful, but you will need a large amount of cable, which will have to be pulled, if not through the entire apartment, then through a couple of rooms;
- an adjustable box is the best option;
- the nearest outlet - a small amount of cable is involved, but the lighting may not turn out as powerful as we would like, since it will be directly related to the operation of electrical appliances in the next room.
The wiring can be either open or hidden. The simplest option is open, the wire can be simply fixed on the walls or hidden in baseboards, corners or a special plastic cable channel.
Conducting covered wiring can be a little difficult with fresh repairs, as you have to gouge the walls to hide the wires.
How to make a visor?
The canopy is part of a closed balcony, and its functional role is to cover the glass from rain drops and reduce the flow of sunlight entering the room. The first step is to decide on the size of the visor. It is best that its length is slightly longer than the length of the balcony, and the free edge extends slightly beyond the railing. So the visor will be the most functional, protecting the balcony from rain drops.
The next step is to build the bindings. They can be completely different: straight, slightly oblique, or even in the form of a small arc. The main thing is that all fasteners are made of high-quality metal profiles and corners, since when building a balcony with your own hands, reliability and safety are valued above all else.
The construction of the canopy is being completed with a roof. It will be necessary to select the material:
- for a straight surface, tiles or slate are suitable, which are often used to cover the roofs of houses;
- for an inclined surface, the most reliable and lightweight option will be metal sheets, which are also called corrugated board, as well as durable ondulin;
- for the arc, bendable metal sheets or polycarbonate are suitable.
Top floor roof
If everything is clear with the middle floors - the roof of the lower balcony is the concrete base of another one, located on the floor above, then a lot of questions arise regarding the balconies on the last, upper floor, because not everyone knows how to make a roof with their own hands.
There are two options for building a roof on the balconies of the last floors:
- Dependent structure construction - a system of fasteners is manufactured, which are the basis and the supporting part of the structure. This option is more reliable, since the roof rests on the structure and is well fixed to it.
- Construction of an independent structure - no supports and posts are used, and the roof is fixed only to the outer part of the wall.
To equip both structures, you will need metal profiles and corners, foam and large screws equipped with waterproofing gaskets. And for the roof itself, materials such as polycarbonate, tiles or some other roofing materials, as well as various types of steel sheets, are perfect.
It is worth noting that after the construction of the structure, it will be necessary to carefully seal all the cracks in order to prevent moisture from entering during rain.
When building a closed-type balcony, the main problem may be its insulation, since a cold room will be functional only in the warm season. Let's take a closer look at how to insulate a balcony and its main stages.
The first step is to install insulated double-glazed windows, since with ordinary thin windows the heat is unlikely to stay inside the room for a long time. A necessity is waterproofing from the inside of the room, which is made in order to protect the room from moisture.
If desired and necessary, after waterproofing, you can cover the balcony floor with insulating electric mats, which are commonly called "warm floors". It is this idea that will help to heat the premises and regulate the temperature regime in it.
In addition, if finances allow, it is possible to insulate the walls with special foam blocks during the construction process. The material perfectly retains heat inside the room and controls it not abruptly, but gradually cooling.
One of the examples of the insulation of balconies and loggias can be seen in this video.
After the construction and insulation of the balcony room, the necessary step is to finish the interior space. In order not to risk it, it is better to provide the external finishing of the balcony to professionals with special equipment and equipment for external work at height.
Interior decoration is made based on personal preferences, the area of the balcony and its type - insulated or cold. For a small insulated balcony, ceramic tiles or high-quality laminate with a protective backing are perfect as flooring.
Anything can be used for wall decoration: from decorative textured plaster to flesilin wallpaper. But if the first option is also suitable for cold balconies with high humidity, then the second is suitable only for dry heated rooms.
For finishing ceilings, they usually use facing paint, whitewash, plastic and wood panels. But, in truth, the most practical and visually attractive stretch ceiling is considered, which will not only decorate the interior, but will also serve for many years.
While some people are engaged in the design of the classic interior of the balcony, others bring to life the most non-standard ideas, turning the balcony into something completely unusual. Let's take a closer look at the most non-standard ideas for balcony designs.
Installation of dense, hermetically sealed double-glazed windows, clapboard finishing and installation of powerful heating elements will help turn the balcony room into a real sauna. Of course, carrying out water procedures in such a room will be impossible, but it is quite suitable in order to warm up properly.
On the balcony, you can create a beautiful lounge area suitable for relaxation and stress relief. For example, you can put soft mattresses and pillows on the floor, and in the upper area decorate the room with fragrant beautiful flowers.
In addition, a decorative fountain can be installed on the balcony, the sounds of water in which will help you relax and be distracted.
Avid gardeners do not miss the opportunity to build places for planting plants on their own balconies, or even turn the balcony itself into a greenhouse. For this, polyethylene tents are additionally installed or the necessary temperature regime is maintained on the balcony itself and humidity is regulated.
Can a cellar be made?
Unfortunately, not every person has a suitable place to store vegetables grown at the dacha, and every time to go out of town for them is not a very reasonable waste of time and energy. There is a way out of this situation - you can build a cellar on the balcony of the first floor, which will allow you to store a certain amount of garden provisions.
The cellar can be made both built-in and in the form of an independent structure - an insulated wooden box. For the manufacture of both options, you will need various wood parts - boards, beams, corners, which will be located in two layers - outside and inside.
In the intervals between the two wooden layers, there is insulation that allows you to keep warm inside the structure. Foam blocks or expanded polystyrene plates are usually used as insulation. Both the one and the other option have excellent thermal insulation properties.
In addition, some small heating element is installed in the area of the bottom of the structure, which will help keep the temperature inside above zero degrees.
It is best to store fruits and vegetables in separate plastic containers - this will promote good air circulation and help keep the harvest fresh for longer.
How to decorate?
When it comes to the decor of the built balcony, you should not be too smart, coming up with various delights and unusual interior ideas. The simplest decorative elements are suitable for the balcony.
For example, an open balcony will help to decorate a wrought-iron openwork fence or neat wooden partitions decorated with carvings. In addition, street flowers and climbing plants are the main decoration of open balconies.
To decorate closed balconies, simple but beautiful interior items are suitable: dried flowers, beads in transparent vases, figurines and paintings, as well as beautiful curtains with an unobtrusive pattern.
- A stylish and functional idea for decorating a balcony room - a bookshelf, presented in the form of numerous diamond-shaped cells.
- High table top and bar stools are the perfect solution for a balcony. In such an environment, it will be pleasant to start the day with a delicious breakfast and end with a romantic dinner.
- A soft comfortable armchair, decorative lamps, a coffee table and a floor lamp are what you need to spend cozy evenings on the balcony reading interesting books.