Compound feed for pigs is not only the main part of their diet, but also the main expense for keeping these animals. Therefore, it is very important not only to correctly make it with your own hands, but also to choose the right one. The successful growth and development of pigs depends on this, as well as the correct spending of money.
Pigs are those animals, the bulk of which is spent on feed. In order to raise healthy, strong and heavily weighted piglets, it is necessary to exert a lot of effort, and the use of ready-made feed makes it possible to simplify this process.
It is important to understand that for pigs of different age groups, the composition of the ready-made feed is significantly different. For example, for small pigs, it is lighter in terms of impact on the digestive system, but for queens, on the contrary, it is fatty and high in calories. The main feature of such a mixture for feeding pigs is that it is already completely ready for use. Its composition is balanced, and the manufacturer additionally indicates the volume of the mixture that must be given to each animal daily, depending on its age.
Various types of such feed mixtures allow you to properly raise and prepare animals for farrowing, for slaughter or for the upcoming vaccination. You cannot save on correct and balanced compound feed. Contrary to popular belief, the pig is not an omnivore. Without proper feeding, it will be impossible to get a healthy animal with tasty meat or lard.
It is up to each livestock breeder to decide what kind of feed mixture to use - factory-made or made with his own hands. Below we will consider in detail the advantages and disadvantages of each type, as well as the basics of choosing and self-preparation of compound feed for pigs.
This indicator of compound feed is strictly regulated by GOST. That is why, depending on the age of pigs, piglets and their condition, chemical and biological indicators in it can change significantly.
A high-quality feed mixture contains from 5 to 12 different ingredients in a strict ratio to each other. The main ingredients are:
- powdered milk;
- dry grass;
- grain flour;
- fish flour;
- soy flour;
- vitamin complexes;
- a piece of chalk;
- mineral supplements.
That is, all the necessary nutrients and trace elements are already included in the ready-made compound feed.
It is also important to know that grain flour can be made from one type of culture, or from several at once. Usually it is made from such products.
- Barley. In this case, animals receive a powerful charge of energy si forces. When a feed mixture is prepared for piglets, barley is used only without husk, as it has a negative effect on the digestive tract.
- Corn. It is used to make compound feed for animals of all ages. It is high in calories and high in vitamins, protein, and minerals.
- Oats . This product is best used to make feed for sows and piglets that have just been weaned. This cereal has a much higher protein and protein content than barley.
- Wheat. It is used in the preparation of feed mixtures for piglets with sows, as well as those animals that are in growing. It contains an amino acid - lysine, which is responsible for the normal growth and weight gain of the animal.
Each bag of industrial compound feed contains exactly as many minerals and nutrients as the animal needs for a certain period of time, depending on its age.
It is also worth noting that the percentage of some components of feed mixtures may vary slightly from manufacturer to manufacturer. But in general, their overall composition is identical.
On sale you can find various options for ready-to-use industrial feed. In order to make the right choice, it is necessary to study not only their names, but also the differences from each other.
All feed mixtures sold today are divided into two large groups depending on their state of aggregation and age purpose.
Appearance and consistency
Appearance and consistency are the main criteria for dividing this balanced diet into groups. On this basis, compound feeds are divided into the following groups.
- Dry loose. Perhaps the most ancient type of industrial compound feed that is on sale. But you can give it to animals only on condition that they always have a humid room in the room and have excellent ventilation. The dust particles in this mixture often clog the sinuses and lungs of pigs, which negatively affects their health. This feed is fed in bulk through special troughs.
Sell only by weight.
- Dry granulated feed is similar to the previous version. The difference is that it is sold already packed in bags of different weights and looks like elongated granules.
When feeding animals, too much dust is not emitted, which is undoubtedly a big plus.
- Wet feed mix (65%) is considered the best feed option for pigs. It does not hinder the functioning of the digestive system of animals, increases their productivity and weight gain.
It is sold in special bags and packages of a certain weight.
- Liquid compound feed is a relic of the last century. One part of the dry mixture is mixed with 3 parts of water. The final moisture content of the mixture is around 80%. Veterinarians recommend excluding such food today. To get the required amount of nutrients, pigs have to eat more feed, which stretches the stomach and puts a lot of pressure on the internal organs.
The best option for feeding adults is dry or wet feed. It is better to feed young pigs only with wet feed mixture.
According to the age
It is imperative to choose a complete feed of any of the above types, taking into account the age of the pigs themselves.
- Pre-start compound feed , can be used for feeding suckling pigs, starting from two days of age. It has a balanced composition, but at the same time it has a very mild effect on the digestive system. It is used until the piglets reach a weight of up to 10 kg.
- The starter or starter feed is intended for feeding animals until they reach the age of 1.5 months. It is introduced into the diet of piglets starting from 3 weeks of age. Animals are transferred to it when they reach a weight of 10 kg and continue feeding until their weight reaches 25 kg.
- The growth feed mixture is used for raising pigs from 1.5 to 8 months of age. Its composition is as close as possible to the final food intended for feeding to adults, but at the same time it contains a greater amount of protein, minerals and vitamins. They are fed to pigs until their weight reaches half a centner.
- Finishing compound feed is intended only for feeding to breeding boars.
On sale you can also find special mixtures for sows. When it comes to feeding animals over the age of 8 months, which are raised for slaughter, then the last few weeks they are fed with finish.
If desired, you can use growth until the last day.
You can also find two more types of food on sale.
- Concentrated. Has a high content of protein and minerals in the composition. It is forbidden to give it to animals in its pure form. Usually it is used as an additive to the main compound feed. The composition is strictly regulated by GOST.
- Complete feed mixture. This is a completely ready-to-use product. There is no need to add other ingredients or dilute with water before feeding to animals.
Mixed feeds with varying composition are also sometimes found on store shelves. This means that some of the ingredients in them can be replaced with identical ones. This is done at a high cost of the main component or its temporary absence from the manufacturer.
However, such a replacement is also regulated only by GOST.
How to choose?
When purchasing compound feed for pigs, it is necessary to take into account the age of the animals, their state of health, as well as the composition of the mixture, the type of grinding and consistency.
It is immediately necessary to highlight the fact that a really high-quality feed mixture, made in accordance with all the requirements of GOST, and from proven natural ingredients, cannot be too cheap. Low price is the main sign of poor quality composition.
Pig breeders who have at least once made compound feed on their own are well aware of how expensive and time-consuming this process is. Therefore, it is often cheaper to purchase feed than to make it in person, especially when it comes to large quantities. On the shelves of shops you can find both foreign feed mixtures and domestic production.
With the products of Russian manufacturers, everything is easier - there are detailed and clear instructions, as well as an indication of what age pigs the feed is intended for.
When choosing products from foreign manufacturers, these indicators should be studied especially carefully - often the information on the packaging is incomplete or not entirely clear. The fact is that foreign-made compound feeds are subdivided not only by the age of animals and their consistency, but among them you can also find those that are intended either for a certain breed or for a certain direction, for example, meat or greasy animals. The wrong choice of food, at best, simply will not bring the expected results, at worst, the animals can get sick.
Here, the problem lies also in the fact that sometimes there are no instructions in Russian on the bags with foreign feed mixtures.
Therefore, it is recommended that you familiarize yourself with the manufacturer's assortment in advance and study with the help of an interpreter the composition of its mixtures and recommendations for use.
How to make compound feed with your own hands?
Not every manufacturer of ready-made feed mixture strictly adheres to the recipe for their preparation. Therefore, sometimes, even for a high cost, you can purchase insufficient quality feed. And sometimes the farmers themselves simply do not trust the ready-made compound feed and prefer to make them with their own hands. Especially for these purposes, we offer a food recipe that allows you to cook it at home.
At the same time, the finished product will be of high quality, balanced and will definitely not contain harmful impurities in its composition.
At the same time, depending on the age of the pigs, the recipe can be modified, as well as the grinding size of the grain itself - the main ingredient.
For young animals
The younger the piglets are, the finer the grinding of the grain itself should be. To prepare compound feed, such animals will need:
- salt - 1 tsp;
- chalk - 1 tbsp. l .;
- grain - 1 kg;
- feed fats - 40 g;
- feed yeast - 100 g.
The grain can be used, the main thing is that it should be without the upper scales. It is crushed in a crusher and then mixed with the rest of the components. The resulting compound feed is thoroughly kneaded with a large spatula.
If the piglets are more than 2 weeks old, then you can enrich the composition of the mixture with boiled peas, soaked bread or boiled potatoes. For the indicated proportions of the main components, the total weight of such additives should not exceed 500 g in total. That is, you can add 0.5 kg of either one component or the same amount of their mixture.
To diversify the menu and ensure that the animals receive all the necessary nutrients, the piglets should periodically prepare the following feed mixture:
- chalk and salt - 10 g each;
- wheat -1.2 kg;
- feed yeast - 120 g;
- soybean cake - 140 g;
- meat and bone meal - 110 g;
- barley - 70 g.
The principle of preparation is the same as in the first variant - the grain is crushed in a crusher and then mixed with the rest of the components.
The feed mixture prepared according to this recipe is suitable for pigs weighing 30 kg and more. It can be used to feed sows as well as breeding boars.
- chalk - 40 g;
- salt - 20 g;
- barley - 800 g;
- sunflower cake - 160 g;
- oats - 600 g;
- meat and bone meal - 240 g;
- alfalfa flour - 320 g.
You will also need a ready-made additive - a premix. It is added at the very end of preparation at the rate of 100 g of additive per 1 kg of finished feed. In this case, the grain is crushed on a crusher into small or large particles, then other components are added and everything is thoroughly mixed.
There is another recipe for making homemade feed with your own hands. It is the mixture prepared according to this recipe that veterinarians and farmers themselves consider one of the best:
- barley - 450 g;
- oats - 350 g;
- corn -100 g;
- peas - 50 g;
- bean meal -20 g;
- BMK - 30 g;
- lysine - 20-30 g.
All cereals and meal are crushed to medium grains, the remaining ingredients are added and mixed thoroughly.
But it's not enough just to make high-quality homemade feed with your own hands. Know how to give it to animals correctly.
- Adult animals should be fed such a mixture in liquid form. But if there is a granulator in the subsidiary farm, then this particular feed will be the best choice.
- Pigs fed for slaughter should be fed with coarsely ground mix only.
- Animals that are left for breeding to obtain subsequent offspring are usually fed with medium-ground compound feed.
Home-made dry feed is best given to animals in a slightly moist form, so that too much grain dust will not form during feeding.
Strict adherence to the proportions of the components, the rules for the preparation of feed, as well as the observance of recommendations for its delivery to animals, will provide pigs with a balanced and rational diet.
Before purchasing or making compound feed for pigs with your own hands, you need to calculate how much it will take for a month or a week to fully feed all available animals. It is quite simple to make calculations, you need to know the average daily food requirement of animals of different ages:
- suckling pigs - from 100 to 200 g per day;
- adult - up to 2 kg;
- pregnant uterus - up to 3.5 kg;
- a pig feeding piglets - up to 6 kg;
- one and a half month old pigs - up to 1.5 kg.
It is also important to know that piglets just weaned from their mother are given compound feed, the granules of which do not reach 8 mm. At the same time, before feeding, the mixture is heated to 30 degrees. Pigs under 6 months of age are fed 5 to 3 times a day, and adults only twice a day. In this case, the daily dose should be divided into equal parts, and the feeding itself should be carried out at the same time.
Calculation of the daily, weekly and monthly consumption rate of compound feed allows you to save on expenses associated with the purchase of feed or ingredients for its preparation. In addition, only such a correct and balanced diet allows you to grow really healthy pigs.
Compound feed today is considered universal and the best feed for pigs, while animals are fed to them on farms or in personal subsidiary plots. The main thing is to properly prepare or purchase really high-quality feed mixtures, and then you can personally verify their effective use.
Four recipes for piglet feed are shown in the following video.