A cow is an adult animal that does not produce offspring for a certain period of time. As a rule, in healthy and young individuals, calving occurs annually. As a result, one to three calves are born. Three months after their birth, the animal is again ready to reproduce.
Barrenness - what does it mean?
In other words, barrenness is infertility in cows that is usually treatable. This can be called a serious problem when:
- more than a year has passed since the birth of the calf;
- the young first-born heifer was not pregnant a month after the mating.
Cattle infertility can be both temporary and permanent - it all depends on the reasons it is caused. With temporary problems with reproduction, the period of barrenness in females is usually called the interval from the time of the last calving to pregnancy.
The main causes of infertility
There are many reasons for the appearance of dry cows. But all of them can be divided into two groups.
Infertility due to the fault of the farmer
- Inappropriate care and maintenance rules.
The reproduction of animals is greatly influenced by proper nutrition. If the female regularly does not eat up or, on the contrary, overeats, as well as in the case of eating unbalanced food, then this will certainly affect her "female" health.
In addition, the room where the cows are kept should be warm and light, the stalls should be spacious, there is always clean and fresh bedding on the floor, and the manure must be removed. In the warm season, the barn should be regularly ventilated, and its “guests” should be walked in the fresh air. It should be noted that the draft has a detrimental effect on the state of cattle.
- Errors made during insemination and accommodation.
Insemination of underdeveloped young individuals, whose body is not yet ready for procreation, is one of the main reasons for barrenness as a result of gross human intervention in the natural process. Under poor conditions of housing and care, the development of animals slows down.
As for the females that have already brought offspring, their infertility can occur when using poor-quality material, the presence of close relationships with the bull-producer, and rough handling.
At the hotel, only a qualified veterinarian should assist the animal. Unprofessional intervention by the owner can lead to fatal consequences as a result of infection or damage to the birth canal.
- Incorrect milking.
Milking technology has its own characteristics. For the beginning of the distribution of the barnyard cows choose the warm season. The process is carried out slowly, for several months, carefully monitoring the condition of the animal. A balanced feed rich in minerals and vitamins will allow individuals to quickly recuperate.
Barrenness due to other factors
- Genetic abnormalities of the reproductive system.
Sometimes barrenness is congenital, the animal is born already with abnormal genetic abnormalities:
- freemartinism - the inability to bear a fetus due to the underdevelopment of some organs of the reproductive system;
- infantilism - the absence of some organs of the reproductive system due to malfunctions in the body during its formation;
- hermaphroditism - the simultaneous presence of female and male genital organs.
Of the acquired disorders, the most common is the rejection of bull sperm. Immune failures of this type provoke:
- lack of vitamin A;
- birth canal injuries;
- violation of insemination technology.
- Gynecological diseases.
This includes not only inflammatory processes in the genital organs responsible for reproduction, but also their dysfunction. If foreign secretions are found in females, you should immediately contact your veterinarian to identify the cause and determine the method of treatment.
Disruptions in the functionality of the reproductive system can be caused by poor nutrition, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, unsanitary conditions in the barn, and the consequences of a difficult birth.
Preventive control measures
Many causes of barrenness in cattle can be avoided by following simple rules. In addition, infertility is amenable to control and treatment, it is only necessary to timely and correctly identify the source of its origin.
Measures to prevent infertility:
- observation of animal behavior and quick response in case of visible deviations;
- regular gynecological examinations of each female;
- a balanced diet and strict adherence to nutritional standards;
- dry, clean and light barn;
- in the warm season, compulsory grazing on summer pastures with the addition of various types of green grass to the diet;
- attentive and caring attitude to individuals;
- an individual approach to the insemination of each cow, taking into account her health status and readiness to reproduce;
- at the hotel, in case of complications, resort to the help of professional veterinarians only, without trying to independently interfere in the process.
If infertility is not caused by genetic problems, then it can be cured. Before starting treatment, it is necessary to establish an accurate diagnosis, having received a competent opinion from a specialist - a veterinarian.
Types of treatment procedures:
- balance the diet by including vitamin complexes and root crops, if the animal's condition is due to underdevelopment or exhaustion due to poor nutrition;
- conducting a course of treatment with drugs aimed at preventing and getting rid of inflammatory processes of the genital organs;
- carrying out rehabilitation measures - special care, compulsory walking, a specially developed diet;
- replacement of mating with artificial insemination;
- insemination of only individuals ready to reproduce;
- stimulation of sexual activity with hormone-based drugs, selected by a veterinarian individually for each individual;
- after hormonal procedures, it is imperative to provide exercise - animals should walk 3 to 4 kilometers a day.
Important: we carry out any type of treatment under the strict supervision of a specialist who will carefully monitor the condition of the individuals, noticing the slightest changes in their behavior or condition.
Breeding in cattle is very slow. A young individual is ready to continue the genus only after reaching the age of 2 years. In addition, the offspring of cattle are few in number - most often only one calf is born during calving, less often two. The duration of a cow's pregnancy is 9 months.
The barrenness of animals leads to colossal losses in livestock farming, because here there is no need to expect offspring at all. Therefore, in order to avoid the irreversible consequences of cattle infertility, each farmer must know and follow the rules of keeping and care, taking care of the health of the animals.
It is worth noting that infertility is a biological term that refers to both uterine females and sire bulls. The fact is that the reason for not getting pregnant can be hidden not only in the barrenness of the cow, but also in the unproductive seed of the bull. To identify the "culprit" of infertile insemination, study the reproductive system of animals allows. Herd reproduction rate is the percentage of pregnant cows to the total number of cows bred.
The treatment of a barn cow is described in the following video.