Kolla is a genetically determined absence of horns in livestock. Basically, this term is applied to cows, since it is this animal in most cases that is associated with a characteristic distinguishing feature - the presence of horns.
Among this species of animals, there are individuals who inherited hornlessness in a natural way, as well as those who have been artificially grafted with the corresponding gene.
At the moment, the hornless cow is a separate independent species. It has a number of characteristic features, which are reflected not only in the absence of bone growths on the head, but also in the structure of the skeleton, characteristics of muscle mass and milk yield. Breeders are constantly working to improve all indicators of this animal, striving to increase the efficiency and profitability of its breeding.
A pronounced feature of this breed is represented by the absence of external head bone growths. Some individuals also lack the internal formations that are the basis of the horns. Others show signs of horny "roots".
This external feature is due to the presence of a special gene in the cow's DNA that blocks the processes that promote the growth of bone formations in the upper head region. Initially, this genetic marker was found randomly in animals. As a result of his action, nothing outwardly conditioned by the absence of horns was observed. This was considered an individual defect of a particular individual.
Subsequently, crossing of animals began to be practiced for the signs of the presence of the gene for pollutants. Thanks to this gene, hornlessness dominates horniness. When an individual that has horns is crossed with one that does not have them, offspring without horns is born. Only in the third or fourth generation do animals appear with signs of the formation of the horny section of the skull.
In Russia, the Russian komola breed predominates. It was obtained by crossing a Kalmyk and a British breed. It was officially registered as an independent breed more than ten years ago. It was bred and fixed in its niche by breeders of the Stavropol Territory.
Currently, the distribution area covers almost all regions of Russia in which animal husbandry is developed.
The Russian hornless breed has characteristic external features, by which it can be distinguished from other breeds.
- The main feature is black color. Not only the coat is black, but the skin of the animal itself. There are also other colors, however, black is dominant.
- The skin of a Russian hornless cow has a low percentage of hair density and length. On this basis, it can be characterized as a short-haired breed. Although in regions with a cold climate, there are branches of the breed that have a relatively long coat.
- The structure of the skeleton of the Russian komola is distinguished by a pronounced chest part. As a result, the front of the cow looks larger than the back of the body. The legs are relatively short and strong, which allows the animal to feed successfully on the pastures of the mountain slopes.
Individuals of this breed are distinguished by large overall and weight parameters. The average length of an adult cow or bull is about 2 m. The weight of individual animals can reach 1200 kg.
Advantages and disadvantages
The main positive feature of this breed of cows is that the beneficial characteristics of a pet are combined in it equally. As a result of the breeding of Russian hornless, farmers receive a satisfactory amount of milk and meat.
It is believed that the useful meat mass of a black purebred representative of this breed can be up to 80% of the total body weight. This is a very high figure by farmer standards. It is noteworthy that the bulk of the muscle mass, subject to the maintenance standards, is gained by individuals already 15 months after birth. This growth period is an excellent factor, since it reduces the cost of keeping animals, and the time for the onset of useful returns is approaching.
Another indisputable plus is the dairy factor. A representative of a pure breed line can produce up to 3600 liters per season. This fact is an obvious advantage of this breed over others, which leads to the popularization of its breeding.
This breed of cattle has only one drawback - over time and the frequency of crossing cycles, a decrease in the manifestation of characteristic signs is observed within the breed. New generations of animals have a smaller percentage of features, and gradually lose them altogether. This is due to the fact that the breed is artificially bred, and the original genes are replacing the selection ones.
In order to prevent the degeneration of the breed within the framework of a particular farm, it is necessary to renew the gene pool of the herd every few years. Its ranks are replenished with new representatives of the breed, and the blood of animals is gradually renewed.
Conditions of detention
Like any other animal, hornless cows need quality care. Within its framework , the following main points can be noted:
- place of detention;
- additional factors.
Representatives of this type of cattle are thoroughbred animals. Therefore, they need a special approach to the content. The place of their stall, overnight stay and wintering place should be clean, warm, moderately ventilated. It is important to regularly remove faeces and other waste products left by animals . For this, you can use modern technical and biological means. For example, an automated drainage system or a fermentation bed containing special bacteria that feed on the manure and generate heat.
The stall must be insulated. In regions with a cold climate, a prerequisite for keeping is the presence of heating.
The air ventilation system is equipped in such a way that the air is constantly cleaned, and the animals are not exposed to drafts.
Carrying out the process of vaccinating thoroughbred animals is the most important condition. Lack of vaccinations can lead to the extinction of the entire livestock from any disease. It is advisable to vaccinate cows once every few years, since mutated strains of viruses and new diseases appear every year.
Animal nutrition should be balanced. It is important to maintain proportionality in the supply of fresh food of plant origin - grass and dry food.
The presence of a good pasture, containing a sufficient amount of succulent and diverse vegetation, has a positive effect on the physical condition of the animal, and significantly increases the quality and beneficial properties of milk
In general, this breed is unpretentious, and easily adapts even to difficult conditions of detention: cold, heat, drought. Calves of this breed are born strong. There is a high survival rate of pups in the first days of life.
All of the above factors are indisputable advantages of the breed and determine the situation in which farmers prefer this variety of cows.
For the Russian pollen cow, see the video below.