The construction of monolithic-frame houses today is widespread, due to the many advantages of the finished object. The essence of this technology comes down to pouring pre-prepared frames with reinforced concrete. This article discusses the features of this method.
The technology of erection of frame-monolithic buildings, which was originally used for the construction of commercial facilities, is becoming more widespread in urban, private and suburban construction. This state of affairs is due to the increased durability and stability of the structure.
The features of the monolithic-frame structure are reduced to the presence of concreted columns of increased rigidity , which are located in areas subject to maximum pressure. Monolithic columns become a transitional element that connects the monolithic floor and foundation together.
Thus, the house consists of 3 main elements: a foundation, monolithic columns and a reinforcing belt that connects the columns and acts as a lintel for window openings (the number of belts depends on the number of floors in the building). At the same time, the technology allows construction to be carried out at an accelerated pace, which is especially valuable for private housing construction.
Thanks to the connection between monolithic floors and reinforced concrete columns, it is possible to ensure unrivaled strength and reliability of the house. At the same time, monolithic walls are thinner, for example, brick ones. That is, the internal free space of a monolithic house will be larger than a brick analogue.
Despite the presence of columns and the solidity of the floor, the structure remains airy, not bulky. This is achieved by installing columns with a step of 7-10 m. The supporting frame is subject to insulation and cladding.
The internal space of the facility remains free and allows for almost any layout. The technology itself ensures the implementation of almost any architectural concept, including floating floors, the construction of high-rise buildings.
The following types of foundations are suitable as a base:
- Shallow tape. Such a structure consists of prefabricated blocks, it is used on the ground with a low level of groundwater rise. With such a foundation, the building does not have a basement.
- Monolithic tape. Allows you to build a house with a basement on non-rocky soils.
- Floating. Suitable for medium- and high-heaving soils, although it is not recommended to build monolithic frame objects on such soils. It is a mobile board installed in a semicircular base. Due to the mobility of the board, the house itself does not change its position.
The foundation assumes the presence of additional reinforcement, which will ensure the strength of the bearing elements. For this, a reinforced concrete formwork is arranged - the reinforcing bars are poured with a concrete mixture. Thanks to this, the fittings are protected from temperature extremes, corrosion and oxidation processes.
The strength of the resulting formwork is 150 times greater than the strength of concrete and reinforcing bars separately. It depends on the size of the fittings used and their location. In addition, the monolith has no seams, which also guarantees the reliability of the house and its durability. It is capable of serving for about 100 years without requiring major repairs.
During operation, such a foundation becomes stronger, which is associated with the constant strengthening and strengthening of the reinforced concrete structure. Thanks to the reinforced concrete formwork and the pouring of the columns, high fire safety of the house is ensured.
The question of the fire safety of the house is decided even at the stage of organizing the supporting structures, so additional protection is not required.
The technology makes it possible to erect seismically resistant objects that can withstand such activity up to 8 points. Due to their low weight, monolithic-frame houses are suitable for construction on moving soils. At the same time, they give a slight and uniform shrinkage, which allows you to start finishing the structure immediately after the construction of the house.
If necessary, construction can be carried out all year round. True, in the cold season, in order to uniformly harden the concrete, it is necessary to resort to heating it, which entails an increase in energy consumption. When working at zero and negative temperatures, special components should be added to the concrete.
Strength, durability, fire resistance and freedom in choosing architecture and planning a house are the main advantages of monolithic-frame objects.
However, they also have characteristic disadvantages. For example, reinforced concrete columns tend to form "cold bridges", which significantly reduces the thermal efficiency of the house. Their elimination requires high-quality thermal insulation, which also affects the total cost of construction. At the same time, the reviews of residents indicate that approximately every 7-10 years in these areas it is necessary to update the insulation layer.
It is also necessary to erect a large number of racks and formwork, which increases the labor intensity and financial costs of the project. In addition, concrete does not have high heat and sound insulation properties, therefore, it needs to use insulation and noise-absorbing materials.
It is better to attract specialists to build such a building. In the absence of experience in the construction of buildings, the project may not meet the specified criteria. You will also need to use special equipment, high-quality high-strength concrete. All this increases the cost of a monolithic-frame house in comparison with a brick or panel analogue by about 10-20%.
Before starting construction, they carry out diagnostics of the state of the soil, find out the level of groundwater. You should take soil samples with your own hands and contact a specialized laboratory, where, after the study, they will issue a conclusion. Taking into account the peculiarities of the soil, the optimal type of foundation is selected. When preparing a project, you should immediately think about the location of communications. If this is not done, then there may be restrictions and difficulties in laying them, which will entail additional costs and delay in construction.
It is also important to plan a forced ventilation system, since concrete is characterized by low vapor permeability. This will lead to increased indoor humidity, erosion and destruction of concrete.
At the design stage, material calculations are made. Approximate calculation for 1 sq. m: concrete - up to 0.7 m3, reinforcement - up to 70 kg. It is also important to select and calculate the amount of material used for masonry walls. For these purposes, the use of aerated concrete or other building blocks, as well as bricks, is common.
At the design stage, the type of formwork is determined. For a private house, permanent formwork is usually used. The aluminum construction is preferred as it is lighter than the steel version. Choosing between wood and film faced plywood, the latter is preferred due to its higher moisture resistance and lack of warpage. The timber frame of the formwork must be treated with fire retardants and water repellents.
Removable formwork involves the use of a special design. As a rule, it is cheaper and more rational to rent it than to purchase it.
Construction of a house using monolithic frame technology is carried out using formwork, which can be either removable or non-removable. The latter can be made with your own hands from metal (aluminum or steel alloys with anti-corrosion protection), wood (glued wood), laminated plywood. They will provide the necessary form of the foundation, and after pouring will become part of the structure.
The modern technology of using wet-strength polystyrene foam boards as a permanent formwork also deserves attention. Such plates, among other things, provide additional thermal insulation.
Structurally, the formwork for a frame-panel house can have one of two types, described below.
- Shield. Consists of rigid panels of various shapes and sizes, fixed with fasteners. Suitable for creating various architectural elements, such as semi-circular bases.
- Tunneling. It is a structure created at the plant according to a pre-prepared project and delivered to the construction site in a finished form.
Delivery of concrete to the facility is provided by concrete mixer trucks. A small volume of concrete mortar can be mixed in-house directly on the construction site. The concrete is fed into the formwork by a crane or a concrete pump. In the first case, it is important to use special containers where the solution is poured.
Mandatory when pouring concrete is the use of deep and surface vibrators, which ensure the compaction of the formwork and prevent the appearance of voids in the monolith.
The construction process can be conditionally divided into 5 stages:
- preparation of a high-strength foundation;
- installation of a frame from reinforcement;
- formwork device;
- pouring concrete solution;
- removal of formwork (when it comes to removable formwork), finishing work.
The preliminary stage will be the preparation of the construction site. It needs to be cleaned of debris, markup. After that, soil is extracted under the foundations to a depth corresponding to the design documentation. If there are depressions and loose areas in the pit, then they should be filled and strengthened with a mixture of gravel and sand. After that, the formwork can be built.
The next step is to pour concrete in the form of a monolithic slab or strip base reinforced with reinforcement. The concrete should now harden and gain strength. On average, this takes at least a month.
After the concrete has hardened with the help of reinforcement, the spatial frame is mounted and the formwork is assembled, the dimensions of which (from the inside) correspond to the dimensions of the future columns. The formwork must be poured with concrete, compacted and left motionless for 4 weeks.
After a specified period of time, the formwork is removed, after which you can start laying the walls using cellular building blocks, bricks or other materials for this. After that, the roof is decorated, insulation and sound insulation of the outer part of the walls, and the cladding of the building.
Reinforcement of monolithic walls is performed using reinforcement or reinforcing mesh. In the first case, reinforcement with a cross section of 6-8 mm is used; when building a house of 2 or more floors, it is recommended to take more durable reinforcement with a cross section of 10 mm. The fittings are installed horizontally and vertically, with particular attention to the corners.
It is important to secure the reinforcement of high quality, otherwise it will not be possible to avoid its bulging after pouring with concrete.
Monolithic-frame construction technology allows you to create original design objects, which is especially appreciated by owners of private houses.
- Compact but spacious house with 2 floors with a carport.
- The classic version of a country house, which also has 2 floors. Built on a permanent formwork.
- The technology of monolithic construction is used in the construction of objects in the Art Nouveau style. House on 2 floors with a flat roof, faced with facade panels for brickwork and timber.
- Promising, in terms of investment, townhouse for 2 families with garages on fixed formwork using frame-monolithic construction technology. Can be erected on a limited (elongated) area. Number of storeys - a house on the 1st floor with a residential attic.
- An example of a spacious home for a large family. It has a bay window, a terrace, built on a monolithic frame technology using plastered wall panels, a timber-rafter roof covered with ceramic or metal tiles. Formwork type - non-removable.
- Examples of ergonomic country houses for small (no more than 6 acres) plots, built on fixed formwork. The increase in usable area is achieved not only due to the reduced thickness of the monolithic walls, but also the use of an exploited roof, where the attic is organized.
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