The correct dimensions of window openings make a person's stay in the house comfortable, and work in a production facility efficient. The optimal arrangement of windows on the front wall and their sizes create an attractive appearance. In order to avoid mistakes and miscalculations in the construction of architectural structures and glazing of buildings, it is recommended to familiarize yourself with SNiP and GOST.
The window is the most important structural element. The space of the window openings provides the necessary illumination, unites the inner space of the room with the outside world, and contributes to the flow of fresh air. Without knowledge of the peculiarities of placement and the specifics of windows, it is impossible to create comfortable conditions for staying in the room and ensure the effective use of the building. For example, the dimensions of the glazed section should be equal to 35-50% of the facade area of the wall.
A bright room not only looks habitable and comfortable, it gives a certain psychological mood. Optimal level of natural light, greatly improves efficiency. Standardization of the dimensions of window openings provides ready-made options for solving such problems.
The structural features of windows largely depend on the material used to construct the building and the window itself.
Modern construction of residential complexes does not differ in thorough standardization. Often, window openings are made by building owners according to personal preference. For example, in the case of mansard buildings. This can often cause the window to be too small or, conversely, huge. To minimize the possibility of such situations, there is a set of standards and norms governing the relationship between the location, design and size of window openings.
Norms and standards highlight several key points:
- the choice of technical characteristics of the window opening is determined by the type of room and the purposes of its use;
- the total area should provide the required level of illumination (without the use of artificial lighting during daylight hours).
The sizes of the windows are regulated by standards and are made in accordance with GOST. Nuances and local cases are considered in building codes and regulations (SNiP).
The regulation provides an opportunity to overcome possible errors at the design and construction stage of residential buildings. GOST determines the size of doors and windows in a private house, as well as doorways in industrial and public buildings. This saves you time and money.
The placement of window frames at the top of the walls is recommended. This is because most of the natural sunlight in the room space comes from the top of the window. Often, local conditions do not allow maintaining the required opening height, which will lead to the use of additional lighting means.
The regulations recommend the optimal window area in order to avoid excessive heat loss in the winter with sufficient lighting.
For residential buildings, the ratio of the area of windows to the floor is usually 1: 6-1: 8, while for dormitories, this standard is 1: 5-1: 8. It should be emphasized that the effectiveness of the application of the recommended standards depends on the geographical latitude , landscape, surrounding buildings, location relative to the cardinal points. The recommended window area is calculated as the sum of the areas of the illuminated rooms, as well as at the rate of 0.03 sq. m per 1 cubic meter of volume. The thickness of the glass increases in accordance with the increase in the area of the window.
The strictly vertical position of the frame is of great importance. It minimizes the possibility of unauthorized opening of the doors. The quality of the sealing directly determines the efficiency and service life of the window. In addition to transmitting light, window openings are part of the design of the building. After installing wooden frames, their bevels are decorated with finishing material. This is forcing, metal corner, platbands.
The dimensions of the openings, the arrangement of windows, their appearance directly determine the volume and efficiency of the room lighting, the functionality of the building and its belonging to a particular architectural style. For example, glazing in "stalinka" modern packages should be decorated appropriately so as not to violate the overall concept.
Existing building codes provide recommended window designs for certain types of buildings. Depending on the purpose, window blocks are available with a double, triple or single package. The first type assumes humidity from 12%, with dimensions from 60 x 180 cm. A typical block of 1.5 m assumes 8 mm of glass for 1 strapping. Installation of plastic, in addition to the number of double-glazed windows, assumes a strict binding scheme, which recommends the optimal number of opening and blind parts. Installation of plastic, in addition to the number of double-glazed windows, assumes a strict binding scheme, which recommends the optimal number of opening and deaf parts.
In order to protect the health and life of people, the environment, plants and animals, and to protect personal and state property, special standards have been developed. GOST is an abbreviation for state standards.
The technologies and methods described in GOST are recommendations for manufacturers and builders, many of which are mandatory. As with any technology, regulations and standards have changed over time. The table demonstrates the tendencies of this process.
Standard dimensions of window openings and dimensions of balcony doors are regulated by GOST 11214-86. Recommended width for windows from 870 to 2670 mm, height from 1160 to 2060 mm.
The values of the parameters can vary from the size of the area of the room, its purpose, the architectural features of the building.
Usually, the glazing area is proportional to the size of the rooms and the whole house. The dimensions of the openings determine the glazing scheme and the number of transoms. This takes into account the dimensions of the balcony doors. Their standard height is 2755 mm, the width varies (870, 1170 and 1778 mm).
Windows are the most important component of the architectural appearance of a building. Their dimensions should organically fit into the geometry of the facade. The dimensions of the windows recommended by GOST meet the typical solutions optimally. Individual projects can use other sizes that allow the author's ideas to be fully realized.
GOST 11214-86 and GOST 23166-99 regulate technical requirements for structures, types, types, markings and standard sizes of windows and openings for residential buildings.
According to GOST, the standard value at the window is determined by the dimensions of the opening, the material of the frame, and its type.
Standardization determines the norms for the size of openings and windows with a height of 60, 90, 120, 135, 150, 180 cm, and a width of 60, 90, 100, 120, 150, 180. For example, according to GOST there are correspondences: 560 x 870 (for an opening dimensions 610 x 910); 560 x 1170 (for an opening with dimensions 610 x 1210).
Knowledge of GOSTs is necessary for the construction of standard housing estates, the construction of private housing and public buildings, the repair and replacement of windows. Compliance with them guarantees the safety and comfort of housing. The sizes of the windows are different. The configuration of modern window openings in a typical building depends on the area of the room.
GOST 11214-86 regulates the possible discrepancy between height and width. Sometimes it is a couple of centimeters, sometimes it can exceed 20. It is obvious that a large room with a high ceiling requires a higher level of illumination than a small bedroom.
The material from which the structure is built largely determines the technology and structure of window openings.
Device in a brick house
The width of the opening on the inside of the house is necessarily made wider than the dimensions of the window frame. When viewed from above, the side walls configure a certain ledge, which is called a quarter.
The frames are installed from the inside of the room into the expansion of the slope, resting their front part against the trailing edge of the quarter. A beam (reinforced concrete, usually about 300 mm wide) is used as the upper headroom. It is possible to use metal channels or thick-walled steel corners for the same purposes (at least 120 x 120 mm of cross-section). The length of the beam must be such that it completely overlaps the opening and goes into the side walls, that is, at least 1 m on one side.
Features of installation in a wooden structure
Features of glazing of wooden houses are associated with the properties of natural materials and configurations of log walls. Wooden structures shrink regardless of age. The use of "living" material implies a constant change in the geometry of the openings under the influence of temperature and humidity.
Such processes can not only limit the functionality of the window, but also destroy the frame. To avoid this, the openings of wooden houses are equipped with a special design - a window. It ensures the stable functioning of the window frames. Windows in log cabins are installed only on the line of contact of the logs.
The best option for achieving maximum efficiency is installation in the middle of the opening.
Examples in aerated concrete structures
Inside the finished window opening made of foam blocks, vertical supports (made of steel pipes, bars) are installed and rigidly fixed. A board is fixed flat on top, on which hollow U-shaped blocks are placed, reinforcement is laid in a frame order in them, which is welded to the vertical supports. Then the gutter is poured with concrete, which, after drying, gives a rigid monolithic lintel.
- Many people like floor-to-ceiling windows that can act as a door to a terrace. It is hard to disagree with this, but only if you have unregulated heat sources available.
- The maximum size of a single structure cannot be more than six square meters. The opening and the window are not located close to the adjacent wall. The recommended indentation is 50 cm.
- A window width of one meter will be optimal with a room width of 2 m, provided it is located in the center of the wall, at a distance of 20-30 cm from the ceiling.
- Bedrooms, bathrooms, pantries may have other sizes of windows, indents. Reducing the windows is not critical in this case. The functionality of these rooms is more dependent on ventilation rather than lighting.
For plastic windows in an apartment building, it is recommended to use standard sizes, this will save money and time.
When replacing windows, measurements are carried out according to the rules:
- the window opening is measured both outside and inside;
- when measuring, use a level;
- the dimensions of the walls and the size of the mounting gaps are taken into account;
- the width of the window is the smallest value of three measurements (top, middle, bottom);
- the window height is calculated in the same way.
For windows with a quarter:
- the window frame should extend 2–4 cm beyond the side ledges;
- recessed by 2 cm behind the upper wall;
- the mounting plate rises 2 cm above the bottom (to form an ebb).
By spending a little time studying the norms and standards, everyone can guarantee the effective implementation of the arrangement of the premises. The location of window openings, their size, glazing require certain knowledge, which are closely interrelated. In order not to miss important details and avoid mistakes, it is recommended to follow the recommendations and advice of the basic documentation (GOST, SNiP).
You can find out the instructions for installing PVC windows by watching the video below.