В настоящее время садоводы-любители стремятся радовать себя и своих близких овощами и фруктами круглый год. Зимняя теплица прекрасно для этого подходит. Кроме того, она может стать не просто инструментом для урожая дачника или цветочного хобби садовода, но и прекрасным источником для бизнеса (в зависимости от конструкции и желаний её владельца).
Nowadays, a greenhouse on a private plot can rarely surprise anyone. Winter greenhouses are a special project that is equipped with everything you need to grow crops in the cold season.
This is a real find: for both ordinary amateur gardeners and professional farmers, as well as novice businessmen.
The main advantages of a winter greenhouse are its convenience and possibilities, thanks to which you can enjoy fresh vegetables all year round.
Its main features include a number of characteristics.
- Capitality. Unlike a regular greenhouse or a summer greenhouse built by your own hands, the winter version is more thorough. It will no longer be possible to “roll up” it and move it from place to place. The design of such a greenhouse requires more effort and money. A heavy frame, dense materials, as well as equipment with heating and lighting sources will allow you to grow crops all year round.
- Area. For the convenience of operating a winter greenhouse, it usually has a large area and a considerable height so that workers can work comfortably in it, and crops receive the necessary conditions for a high-quality harvest. Drawings of such structures take into account all the requirements of the owner, and also provide space for various sources and mechanisms for the continuous supply of energy and heat.
- Various zones. Depending on what crops the owner is going to grow, it is worthwhile to foresee the division into zones in advance. Some crops require more heat, respectively, and heating, and some - less. The design of the greenhouse should contain several adjustable zones, as well as the ability to make additional insulation in the event of unforeseen external temperature conditions.
A winter greenhouse will be an excellent tool and source for harvesting in the cold season. As a rule, they are installed on private sites or on the territories of large enterprises. They are equipped with everything necessary for a high-quality harvest, however, there are several varieties of their designs that are better suited for one or another kind and type of operation.
Views: drawings and diagrams
Currently, there are organizations that offer standard projects for winter greenhouses.
Such schemes can be divided into several types.
- Capital. The frame does not provide for the assembly and disassembly of the structure, it is built on a foundation, in the center of which a trench is erected to collect cold air. This is a more reliable option, which, with additional light sources, guarantees a high-quality harvest in the cold season. In addition, it is extremely easy to use and does not require additional insulation. Usually used by professional farmers for the purpose of obtaining large quantities of crops.
- Conditionally capital. They are usually erected in suburban areas. Such a drawing provides for a collapsible frame so that, if necessary, the greenhouse can be disassembled and moved to another place. However, this is not the same as summer greenhouses. Such structures require much more time and effort. Piles act as a foundation, and the floor, in most cases, is built of wood.
Drawings of year-round greenhouses can also be divided according to the type of construction itself.
- Greenhouse thermos. It differs from other options in that the main part of such a greenhouse is underground. Due to this design feature, a "thermos" effect is created, which provides the necessary heat for the successful cultivation of crops. The most popular option for summer residents and gardeners.
- Arched greenhouse. Suitable for those who find it more convenient to grow crops in the ground. It is the most difficult to erect, since problems often arise with the installation and construction of the frame, as well as with the cladding. Polycarbonate is used as the main material. Most often, this option is purchased "ready-made" at specialized bases, and then it is installed at a summer cottage.
- A greenhouse with a gable roof. The best option for both summer residents and farmers. Due to the design feature, there are no problems with the sagging of the roof, since due to the slope it is actually self-cleaning. Usually used for those looking to grow crops in boxes. It has a high ceiling, which makes it possible to work in it at full height, which is comfortable for workers.
- Greenhouse with a mansard roof. Suitable for doing business. It is usually used for growing flowers, since the design features allow you to place as many tiered racks as possible inside the room. A warm atmosphere is usually achieved with stove heating, and transparent walls will provide an additional source of lighting.
- A greenhouse attached to the house. A very convenient option, which is more often used as a winter garden than for the purpose of growing crops. The heated structure receives an additional source of heat due to the common wall with the house. In addition, the owner has the opportunity to freely enter the greenhouse by crossing the threshold of his own house, without crossing the street.
When developing a drawing, it is also worth considering the functionality of the room. It depends on the funds available to the owner, as well as his desires and plans for the greenhouse.
Local and exotic crops require different growing conditions - this also needs to be considered.
The location of the structure in relation to the ground is also important for high-quality heat transfer. The greenhouse can be in-depth, superficial or be part of a heated room (shed, gazebo, house, etc.). Particular attention should be paid to the material from which the structure will be made.
Constructions can be conditionally divided into:
- made of polycarbonate;
- made of PVC frame.
However, currently, winter greenhouses are made from two or more material combinations. Thus, the design of the product will be much stronger and more versatile, as well as more resistant to sudden changes in temperature.
The frame is usually made of wood or metal. The first one is cheaper, but differs in fragility. Steel options can withstand significant loads and are more resistant to mechanical damage.
Experts recommend using polycarbonate as cladding. It has a high degree of thermal insulation and also has good light transmission.
It is recommended to use glass for small greenhouses, for a conservatory or greenhouses (since glass is more fragile and has a greater weight). However, at present, the stability of the structure is being increased by double walls or an additional layer of polycarbonate, which (together) will provide heat transfer and make the cladding of the room more durable.
When building a winter greenhouse, professionals do not recommend using film as the main means of thermal insulation under the cladding, as well as aluminum - because of their fragility and easy mechanical damage to them. In addition, condensation can collect under the film, which can freeze when the temperature rises rapidly or increase the humidity inside the greenhouse.
The size of a greenhouse depends entirely on the needs of its owner. For summer cottages, options from 5 to 10 sq. m., in which there is enough space for growing crops for one family. For gardeners, the optimal size for growing flower beds will be 15-20 square meters. m.
Growing crops for sale will require large winter greenhouses, which can occupy an impressive area (up to 200 sq. M.) In large enterprises.
How to build?
Currently, there are companies and services that provide their customers with a catalog of various greenhouses, as well as the ability to make them to order. The structure can be ordered, and then you can do the assembly yourself or leave it to professionals for an additional fee. However, for many summer residents and gardeners it will not be difficult to make a greenhouse with their own hands.
Before you start, you need to decide in advance on the place to build. As a rule (depending on the purpose of the greenhouse), the most suitable type of structure is immediately selected and the foundation is laid.
Before construction, it is important to immediately calculate the material consumption and cost in order to avoid possible problems.
The place itself should be chosen taking into account the most optimal protection from the wind. Otherwise, you will have to spend additional efforts to protect the product from gusts of wind, as well as to heat it.
As a rule, a winter greenhouse consists of a foundation, a frame and a glazed roof. The device of the greenhouse should include a ventilation and heating system previously indicated in the drawing to further ensure the favorable life of the plants. Air tightness is of great importance for such a greenhouse, since the temperature in it is maintained artificially.
If the owner plans to grow plants in the ground, then the greenhouse ceiling can be low. If you plan to work with racks, you must make sure in advance that the height of the ceiling and the shape of the frame are sufficient for the comfortable work of the workers.
You can start making shelving in advance to make sure that they are easy to use at the stage of construction. They are usually made from timber and planks or plastic.
A winter greenhouse must definitely receive the maximum amount of lighting. In winter, daylight is usually not enough to get a good harvest, so you need to think about artificial lighting in advance. It is important that it is not only effective, but also as safe as possible, as well as reliably protected from moisture and other conditions that can lead to a closure of the system.
The final stage is the arrangement of a homemade greenhouse from the inside. Usually, in this case, a specialist is involved to make sure that all additional systems for ensuring the vital activity of plant crops are safe. When placing the beds, it is worth making wide aisles for convenience (taking into account the future dimensions of the plants and their needs).
The finished greenhouse needs careful maintenance in the first year of use. It is worth being attentive to the occurrence of unwanted cracks, as well as taking care of maintaining tightness, and being careful in operation. It is advisable to be able to insulate the greenhouse from the inside during severe frosts.
How to heat?
The selection of the type of heating for a winter greenhouse must be approached responsibly. It is necessary that it corresponds to the type of structure of the structure, and also meets all safety standards.
For a small greenhouse up to 20 sq. m. stove heating will be enough. This option is perfect for permanent residents of private houses. Its main advantage is the ability to more finely regulate the temperature inside the greenhouse, due to which you can get a high-quality harvest, as well as not depend on abnormal weather temperatures outside.
Biofuel can also be used for such greenhouses. This is the most economical form of heating the greenhouse in winter, but it is also more time consuming for the owner. It is laid under the fertile soil layer and heats the earth due to natural decomposition processes.
For larger greenhouses, professionals advise using electric or hot water heating.
Electrical can be divided into overhead and cable. The air type maintains the necessary favorable temperature conditions for fertile crops inside the greenhouse with the help of special fan heaters.
Cable works as a "warm floor" system , that is, it heats the soil from the inside. It is because of this feature that it is extremely important that it is installed correctly and tested in advance in order to avoid detecting problems after the construction of the greenhouse.
Water heating is carried out through pipes that can be installed underground (or through racks).
Growing crops in winter is no easy task, even with a properly equipped winter greenhouse. For a high-quality harvest, it is necessary to use all the advantages of a greenhouse and to foresee many nuances in advance (even before the construction phase of this building).
You should adhere to the operating tips given by professionals to summer residents.
- If you plan to plant such demanding and delicate berries as strawberries in the greenhouse, then you should choose polycarbonate for covering the structure, and also take care of high-quality artificial lighting in advance and prepare racks in which the seedlings will feel comfortable. Growing berries in the ground is undesirable, as this can lead to the death of plants with a strong jump in temperature outside.
- It is better to determine zoning in the greenhouse in advance (before arranging the heating system), since different climatic conditions are required for cucumbers, carrots, peppers, herbs and other crops. Having sustained them in advance, you can prepare for a quality harvest.
- A greenhouse for growing flowers must include in its equipment devices for regulating indoor humidity.
- Growing exotic crops requires more effort than traditional plants. That is why the success of the realization of such a crop will directly depend on the quality and quantity of all the necessary heating and lighting systems. In some cases, it is worth resorting to the help of specialists to create the most suitable climatic conditions for certain plants.
A successful harvest depends not so much on the correct arrangement of the greenhouse as on the competent use of it by the owner.
Design solutions for large winter greenhouses exceed all expectations of private house owners. A winter greenhouse can transform from a plant growing area into a chic place to relax while reading a book with a cup of hot tea in hand. However, one does not exclude the other.
A white-framed greenhouse with a gable high roof and glazed windows can become an excellent greenhouse that will accommodate not only small bushes of delicate plants, but also low trees. The brick foundation makes this structure more reliable, and the shape of the roof will not allow the accumulation of snow weight for a long time. The glazed surface will allow you to enjoy daylight all year round.
A metal greenhouse-"hut" with glass walls will be a wonderful decoration for a winter hunting lodge. Water heating (in addition to the wooden interior furnishings) will allow you to enjoy green plants all year round. The sharp roof shape, combined with the beams, makes it extremely resistant to winter weather, as well as another design addition to the backyard.
A greenhouse with a stone foundation and a metal frame will be a wonderful childhood memory of an old summer cottage, where a beautiful structure could be a winter greenhouse and a beautiful palace at the same time.
Modern winter greenhouses are designed to create aesthetics and mood, to delight with greenery, while outside the windows - a blizzard and cold.
For an overview of the winter greenhouse, see the video below.