Ceiling decoration is an integral part of the overall design of the room. The design of the ceiling space should correspond to the entire style of the interior. There is a wide variety of materials and finishes. In order not to be mistaken in the choice, it is worth getting acquainted with the traditional and new solutions for the design of the ceiling, find out how the size of the room affects this choice, how you can decorate and what colors can be combined to create a harmonious interior.
The design of the ceiling depends on the type of room to be finished. Decoration in a city apartment differs from the decoration of a summer residence. We spend a lot of time in the house and the disadvantages of finishing will not go unnoticed. Compliance with the entire chain of the technological cycle is appropriate here. To prepare the surface of the upper floor, you need to more carefully approach the choice of color and texture, special attention is paid to the types of decor.
Finishing work in the country house depends on the conditions of use of the country house - whether the room is heated or used only in the summer, whether low temperatures and humidity will affect the material of the ceiling covering. A universal solution would be to sheathe the ceiling with wood, if lathing is used in the design of the cottage. Such a ceiling will serve for many years and, if necessary, it can be simply painted in the desired color.
Giving preference to one or another version of the ceiling, you need to consider the size of the room. The ceiling on suspended structures will remove 5-10 centimeters in height, in low rooms it is better to paint or wallpaper on plaster. On the contrary, the dimensions of a narrow and tall room can be balanced by lowering the suspension structure to the desired height. In the attic rooms, this way you can remove up to two meters in height to decorate the room in a traditional style.
The use of color and different levels in the design of the ceiling allows you to zone the room and visually influence the size. A wooden crossbeam or a protruding drywall plane will divide the space and expand the boundaries of the walls of a long narrow room. The same effect will be obtained if the transverse stripe is made in a contrasting color. Care should be taken to apply dark colors in the ceiling tinting. They add weight to the top of the space. This technique is acceptable when decorating walls with very light or white colors and a sufficient room height.
Some types of ceiling finishing work can be done independently; for more complex finishes, it is better to invite specialists. To complete the design exclusive ceiling, project documentation is drawn up, a plan of a constructive solution, a wiring and lighting scheme are drawn, tinting sketches are prepared in relation to a specific object. Such design work is not cheap, there will be costs for high-quality materials and payment for the work of specialists, but as a result you become the owner of a unique ceiling that will surprise guests and decorate your home.
The traditional and oldest ceiling decoration technique is whitewashing. Any housewife is familiar with the whitewashing scheme: the old layer of chalky whitewash is slightly washed out with a wet sponge or brush, then a new clean water-chalk solution is applied from a sprayer or with a wide brush. During the first painting, several layers of whitewash are applied to the ceiling slab. The advantage here is the ease of repair work and the painting itself, the harmlessness of the chalk solution, and resistance to high temperatures. The advantages include the invariability of the height of the room.
The disadvantages include careful preparation of the floor surface. The work cycle is as follows: the floor slab is cleaned of dust, cement splashes and degreased in the presence of oil stains. The surface is covered with a primer, on the primer they are plastered in heated rooms with gypsum plaster, and in utility rooms - with cement. If there are gaps between the slabs or a large difference in height, beacons are set and the surface is aligned with the beacons. Next, they are treated with a leveling putty, on which a primer is applied and fiberglass is glued to a special glue. This is followed by a layer of finishing putty, which is rubbed first with a coarse mesh, then with a fine mesh manually or mechanically. The surface is now ready for whitewashing.
Chalk paints have lost their relevance today and were replaced by acrylic and water-dispersion paints. Such a ceiling can be washed, this coating lasts longer, however, preparation for painting is performed in the same order as for whitewashing. And he and the other type of finish can be painted in any color scheme suitable for interior decoration. On this basis, frescoes and paintings are made that adorn the ceremonial living rooms and halls. Stucco molding is used from the decor, gilding is added to give more solemnity.
A plain white ceiling in a classic style looks noble.
Affordable and simple in execution is wallpapering the ceiling. You can make this coating yourself by choosing wallpaper to match the wall wallpaper or using bright colored accents on the ceiling with a monochrome interior decor. Floor preparation is a little easier than whitewashing. Here it is enough to apply a layer of leveling putty on the plaster. Thick wallpaper hides minor surface defects. Vinyl wallpaper can be tinted several times to update the color.
The disadvantages include a short service life, a tendency to yellowing under the influence of ultraviolet rays, to peeling of seams under the influence of moisture and the laboriousness of the pasting process. Tastefully selected wallpapers will create a Renaissance classic in the living room.
Liquid wallpaper replaced paper. There is great variability in color solutions, material availability, ease of application, great durability, the ability to change the color scheme. The disadvantages include the difficulty of wet cleaning and the accumulation of dust in the texture.
The next group of types of ceiling finishes refers to suspended structures to which the base material is attached. There are several such materials.
Plasterboard is an inexpensive material with a surface prepared for applying the finishing putty. This finish does not require top floor treatment. These ceilings do not need to align the floor slabs differences, they are environmentally friendly material, non-flammable, easy to install.
At the initial stage, a frame is mounted, which consists of metal profiles attached to suspensions. The lighting scheme is determined, electrical wiring is laid. Then the frame is sheathed with sheets of drywall, holes are cut for installing lighting fixtures. Plasterboard is putty at the joints, fiberglass is glued and passed with a layer of finishing putty. The surface is painted in the desired color. This type of ceiling can be pasted over with wallpaper or finished with liquid wallpaper, then you can limit yourself only to sealing the seams between the sheets with putty. Thus, the plane of the ceiling is lowered by at least 10 centimeters, this must be taken into account when choosing a method for finishing the ceiling in low rooms.
Framed ceilings can be made in several levels , this will add artistic expression to the interior. Tiered ceilings look good in spacious, tall rooms. In a small room, it is worth stopping at a straight ceiling or mounting one protruding level in the center or along one of the walls. An LED strip is mounted on the side faces of the level, or several spotlights are mounted on the ceiling along the outline of the level.
Plasterboard suspended ceilings are indispensable if you need to perform complex relief on the ceiling.
Recently, stretch ceilings have become very popular. They are easy and quick to install, do not require special preparation of the floor surface, only the installation of the frame. A frame made of a metal profile is attached to the walls, so the ceiling is lowered only to a profile height of three to 5 centimeters. At the next stage, electrical wiring for lighting is done. The finishing cloth is stretched and fixed in several places, then it is heated with the help of an electric generator and bent between the profile and the wall with a spatula. The joint between the wall and the ceiling is decorated with molding.
PVC fabric can be classified into the following types: matte, glossy, satin and fabric. The matte surface is suitable for almost any interior, regardless of the size of the room. This solution will be ideal for low-rise rooms. The disadvantage of a matte surface is its ability to absorb light, so care must be taken to provide sufficient lighting. The choice of this type of canvas is suitable for a classic room design with wooden furniture, traditional curtains and paintings, for which glare in the room is undesirable.
For ultra-modern trends in interior design, manufacturers offer a glossy canvas. A glossy ceiling, due to the reflectivity and glare of light, adds illumination to the room and visually raises the ceiling. Gloss acts on the principle of reflection in a pond - if the floor is finished with glossy porcelain stoneware, the objects will be reflected many times, creating the effect of infinity. If you add this or that color scheme, you can get an extremely stylish effect on the floor and ceiling.
Satin canvas combines the advantages of both types of finishing. Retaining the nobility of the matte material, it has a slight sheen of satin fabric and mother-of-pearl motifs. It is the best choice for classic architectural solutions. The slight sheen of the canvas structure emphasizes the play of light on the ceiling, the weave pattern changes shades from different angles, which adds richness to the texture. In natural light, the color looks darker than with electric.
Fabric stretch ceilings have similar properties. In this case, in the factory, a thin layer of PVC is applied to the fabric, which gives the fabric elasticity and does not hide the peculiarities of the thread weaves. Professional art painting is done on the fabric or an already existing pattern is chosen, but this type of finishing material is the most expensive.
Modern technologies make it possible to make multi-level PVC or fabric ceilings.
The advantage of stretch ceilings is durability, high performance and strength, a wide variety of textures and colors of the canvas, they are easy to keep clean, just wipe with a damp cloth. The finishing material has a high moisture resistance, it can be used in rooms for any purpose.
The disadvantages include the impossibility of self-installation , since special equipment and knowledge of technology are required, and the limitation of use in unheated rooms. Minor repairs cannot be made. In case of damage to such a ceiling or flooding from the upper floor, the canvas must be completely replaced.
The next popular type of ceiling decoration is suspended modular ceilings. Armstrong ceilings are distinguished here. In the ratings of finishing materials for administrative and office buildings, they take the first place. The ceiling consists of a metal frame attached to the floor slab in the form of squares or rectangles. Slabs of pressed mineral fiber (rock wool with starch, latex, gypsum, cellulose) are inserted into these squares, which are held by the T-shaped profile of the frame.
The slabs have a standard size of 60x60 centimeters and a thickness of 1-2.5 centimeters. Rectangular slabs are available in sizes 120x60 centimeters. The most affordable and practical ceilings are "Oasis" and "Baikal" in white or gray. Plates "Biogard" have a special antimicrobial coating, which expands the scope of application in kitchens and dining rooms. Plates "Prima" can withstand high humidity. The “Ultima” ceilings have additional noise insulation.
The advantages of these ceilings are obvious: affordable price, installation speed, no need for floor preparation, hidden wiring, ease of replacing one module with another during repair. The disadvantages include the loss of performance at high humidity or water ingress on the plates, the fragility of mineral plates and instability to UV rays.
A variety of suspended structures are cassette ceilings. They are more often used in the decoration of houses because of their decorative effect. Modules can be of any color, as well as mirror, metal, polymer. Their performance is much higher, and their ease of assembly makes them the bestseller.
Another option for a modular ceiling is the Grilyato ceiling. These are aluminum profile grilles. Their configurations are very diverse, they can be painted in any color, there is no difficulty in installation, they transmit light, which allows you to mount original lighting. Previously, Grilyato's designs were used in industrial buildings and canteens. There are lattices made of dense small rectangles - blinds, a square mesh system "Standard", a pyramidal cell that visually increases the height of the room - "Pyramid". These cellular ceilings can be located at different levels. Today, as industrial design styles are in vogue, lattice modules are at their peak of popularity, which allow you to create fantastic interiors.
The disadvantage is the transparency of the gratings and the visibility of electricity and ventilation communications. Designers prefer to cover the interceiling space from the inside with frosted glass.
The most economical option is recognized as PVC or foam modules. They are equipped with ornamental relief, wood or stone texture. They have a wide variety of colors. Even an inexperienced person in construction can cope with gluing plates to the ceiling. After gluing the tiles, the seams are covered with putty to match the color of the module. With a flat base and accurate installation of the modules, a beautiful ceiling is obtained.
The slatted ceiling is well known for the nation's rural construction. Wooden log cabins were sheathed with a wooden board or lath, since wood was the most affordable material, wood is a very durable material, retains heat well, and has excellent sound insulating properties. Minus - susceptibility to rotting and fungal diseases in violation of temperature and humidity conditions.
Nevertheless, this is a fairly simple technology that does not require special preparation of the base. A frame made of a metal profile or from a wooden bar is attached to the upper floor. The frame is sewn up with a board or rail. The brutality of the material allows for the presence of cuts from knots, and the heterogeneous interesting fibrous structure of the wood conceals irregularities. Electrical wiring is laid in the gap between the frame and the slatted bed.
Wood adapts well to high humidity , is a "breathable" material, environmentally friendly. Some types of wood emit resins useful for the respiratory system when heated; this effect is successfully used in baths and saunas. Designers are happy to use a wooden batten in interior decoration. The slatted ceiling, after a special treatment against decay, is covered with varnish, wax or stains on a water or oil basis. When repairing a ceiling that has blackened from time to time, you can sand the top layer, so clear wood will open. With a deep defeat of the array, the ceiling is simply painted with paint.
Today, natural finishing materials are increasingly being replaced by artificial ones. PVC ceiling slats are widely used. The structure of PVC slats is very light, is not afraid of moisture, its installation is not complicated, the entire technological cycle takes a little time. Manufacturers produce high-quality imitations of natural materials that cannot be identified "by eye". Similar ceiling slats are produced from metal decorated in gold or with a mirror surface. Affordable decorative material allows for luxurious interiors.
An original and easy-to-implement solution will be to cover the ceiling and walls with OSB plates. The OSB board is used as a flat and solid base for finishing with another material, it can also become a finishing solution to the ceiling. This material is now at the peak of popularity, as it has an interesting structure and color scheme in natural tones. OSB boards have increased moisture resistance, are durable, aesthetic.
Reed mats have become an interesting technique for decorating a country house or attic, they are not very durable, but with proper protection from moisture, they will last for several years and add an exotic note to the design of the cottage.
Rooms with bevelled ceilings are usually difficult to arrange beautifully. An unused area appears in the low part of the room, where unnecessary things accumulate. It is better to give such rooms under the bedroom and put the headboard against a low wall. A good idea would be to combine the ceiling with contrasting materials. The bright color will prevent bruises and decorate the interior.
Modern design trends attach great importance to the modeling of the ceiling space. The floor can only have a horizontal plane, the walls - vertical, but the ceiling is given the most bizarre configurations. And for this they use a combination of simple types of finishes - from whitewash to wooden slats.
The original designs are made from a combination of plasterboard and tension members. When included in the composition of contrasting colors, a stylish high-tech ceiling is obtained. This design is supported by glossy dark furniture and light wall colors.
Stretch ceilings with a pattern can completely transform a room if you use the illumination of the canvas from the top and sides in the lower level. The effect of a three-dimensional image has become available thanks to the technology for creating 3D drawings.
Wood finishes are becoming an element of minimalist trends in the design of ultra-modern rooms. The multi-level plasterboard ceiling, painted in white, is filled in the central part with a slatted wooden ceiling. Designers in transforming spaces give the function of zoning to the ceiling.
Wooden beams come to the fore in the Scandinavian-style slatted ceiling. Structural beams are color-coded intentionally. The deliberate roughness of the ceiling finish is offset by the elegance of the furnishings. The dark tones of the ceiling and window frames are balanced by the light-colored walls, floor and upholstery.
The ceiling can be vaulted. The architects leave the brickwork as a final finish. It is better to give preference to red or dark bricks, some parts are made of wooden panels, behind which they hide the electrical wiring. The "industrial" ceiling is softened by the classic design of the rest of the room and traditional multi-track chandeliers.
Suspended structure made of plasterboard with a lack of lighting on the attic floor is combined with a glass stained glass ceiling. The stained glass window is illuminated with natural light, or a lighting system is mounted in it, which is hidden inside the structure.
Unique plasterboard structures transform an ordinary room into a fantastic laboratory. Very deep relief is possible due to the considerable height of the room. The simplicity of the furnishings does not distract from the sophisticated pattern of fractures of the upper floor.
Lighting plays a huge role in organizing space. Lighting devices are diverse, you can choose suitable ones for any finish. LEDs that are relevant today allow you to model and illuminate a room in the most unusual way. LEDs are variable in color, small in size from luminous dots to ribbon light. They are installed in multi-level ceilings, creating unique luminous patterns on the ceiling.
Properly executed ceilings will raise the height of the room. To do this, use the technique of installing a ceiling on a wall or a ceiling on a wall using color. The ceiling cornice is painted in the color of the walls, and the central part is tinted with light shining colors. The white plasterboard panels in the middle should be separated by a strip of stretch fabric imitating golden reed mats. The ceiling of the room rises visually.
For narrow rooms, the decor on the ceiling is placed along the short side, the transverse lines push the walls apart. If you need to lengthen a short and wide room, longitudinal relief lines with backlight are mounted on the ceiling. This will push the wall away and make the room look more harmonious.
Tips for choosing
Knowing all the subtleties of finishing the ceiling, you need to take into account the operating conditions of the finishing material. The wide possibilities of modern design for the use of any material are limited by temperature and humidity conditions. For the installation of a ceiling in an unheated attic or open terrace, it is worth choosing a budget moisture-resistant paint, a wooden lath, and mesh metal modules. Reed mats will be an original solution for the attic floor.
The interiors may be humid , such as the kitchen, bathroom, shower and toilet. Regular cleaning is required here. A good choice would be a ceiling made of PVC slats or whitewashing and painting. Plastic is easy to wash, whitewash or paint is not difficult to renew regularly. Often the bathroom is finished with spectacular metal or mirror panels, but this is impractical, because the panels rust from moisture, they will have to be replaced regularly.
When choosing a material for decoration, it is necessary to take into account the release of harmful impurities when it is heated. Don't buy cheap flammable finishes. The steam room in the bath is best sheathed with natural wood. For rooms with an open fire - a stove, fireplace or gas stove, non-combustible finishing materials are selected. It is enough to apply drywall, stone, chalk or metal modular ceiling only in the ignition zone, and make the rest of the canvas to your liking.
Beautiful examples in the interior
Unusual LED lighting of the ceiling pattern.
Neoclassical modular suspended ceiling.
Brutal beams instead of a ceiling.
You can see tips for choosing a ceiling finish below.