In our time, housing construction is quite expensive, every centimeter of usable area is important. Therefore, today the focus is on the original idea of using square meters - the operation of the roof. This option for using the roof came to us from Western countries. It is the optimal solution for using empty square meters for specific needs. Anything can be placed on a flat roof with a special opening.
The term "exploited roof" means that the roof is intended for use. It is often considered a full-fledged floor of a house or cottage. Its appearance must be proper. This is a special coating that is selected depending on the required functionality of the roof. Several times a year, it is necessary to completely clean such a roof from small debris, including branches and leaves, if it is an open space. The type of cleaning should be chosen based on the type of coverage. Such use of the roof carries certain risks, therefore, when arranging it for a living or working space, it is imperative to adhere to all norms and rules of the SNIP.
The exploited roof can be open and covered completely along the entire perimeter. In our time, the most popular has become a roof with a broken shape. The peculiarity of this form lies in the fact that the number of rays can be different. The angle of inclination of the slopes is determined independently. The main thing is that the slope fulfills its main function - the removal of precipitation from the surface. In addition to this feature comes the unusual and beautiful design.
It is necessary to take care of the natural light of such an indoor space, for this you need to correctly position the skylights. For a simple roof without various branches, two windows on the sides and two on the slopes are sufficient. If you decide to make a space brightly lit by sunlight, you can add large windows. The angle of inclination of the roof is an important part of the structure, because excess moisture and precipitation can negatively affect the general condition of the roof.
Finding the correct tilt angle depends on many factors.
- Wind loads. The impact of wind on the material directly affects the life of the roof. Therefore, in regions with strong winds, the slope must be performed at an angle of 250 - 300 degrees.
- Snow loads are an equally important factor. From a large amount of snow, the roof strongly bends and sags. As a result, the life of the material is significantly reduced.
- Do not forget about the quality of the material itself and the size of the roof so that the height of the location is optimal.
You can calculate the desired slope of the slope.
- In areas with strong and frequent winds, the angle of inclination should be 100-200 degrees so that the roof is not exposed to wind currents and the material used does not deteriorate.
- In regions with frequent rains and snow, you need to make a slope more so that precipitation falls off the roof in time.
- The universal slope angle is 200 degrees, it is suitable for average values of wind and precipitation.
To apply these angle values, it must be borne in mind that the ridge height must be more than 3 meters. Another problem can be the removal of communications to the roof. To do this, you should contact the specialists, since in many cases the implementation of these works is technically difficult.
The exploited roof is divided into 4 types according to the type of use.
- Roof terrace. It has great functionality for relaxation and light walks, more suitable for the roof of a private house. For this type, special projects are made with a variety of ideas.
- The green roof is used for planting on the roofs of lawn buildings, as well as various plants that increase oxygen in the air.
- Flat analog parking is applicable as a car parking.
- The variant with green, pedestrian zones is used for outdoor activities.
The exploited roof varies, depending on the components of its coverage.
With a straight position
With this type of structure, the main waterproof layer is laid on top of the heat-insulating layer, between them is a cement-sand screed. To protect the insulation from moisture, a waterproofing material is applied to the surface of the porous insulation. Bituminous film materials reinforced with a synthetic base are used as a waterproof layer.
This type has the opposite arrangement of the covering layers. A waterproof layer is applied to the base coat. Then comes the heat-insulating layer, filtering, and also the top coat. The thickness of the insulating layer should be chosen taking into account the climatic conditions of the region.
This use of a roof requires a strong base layer. As a basis, you can use a monolithic reinforced slab with a thickness of more than 8 cm. For the top layer, you can use monolithic asphalt concrete with a thickness of 4 cm or concrete tiles with a thickness of more than 8 cm. Waterproofing and heat-insulating layers are required. They do not have any peculiarities of location here.
With this type, at least 2 layers of waterproofing made of round roll-type polymer membranes must be placed in the coating. The insulation should also be given a lot of attention. A monolithic concrete slab is used as the basis for the coating. The thickness of the underlayment must be more than 3 cm.
With lawn and vegetation
There should be at least two waterproof membrane layers. The protective cover includes soil substrate, drainage or separation layer. The topsoil should be selected individually by type, thickness. It all depends on what will be planted. The thickness of the soil for the lawn of the grass should be about 2 cm, for the cultivation of flower plants - about 2.5 cm, shrubs - 3.5 cm, trees - more than 7 cm. moisture.
In order for the structure to be in excellent condition for many years, to satisfy all needs, it is necessary to carry out the coating only from the correct and high-quality materials. Each coating layer has its own peculiarity, the overall coating is a kind of "pie", consisting of layers different in their functionality.
The composition of the coating depends on the following factors:
- climatic and weather conditions of the region;
- type of construction;
- Operating conditions;
- requirements of medical and fire regulations.
- used roofing cake material
The most suitable materials for the base will be a reinforced concrete slab, corrugated board or lumber. Reinforced concrete slab is capable of withstanding huge loads. Therefore, it is better to use it under the base.
For the manufacture of the layer, it is better to use slag, concrete or expanded clay with the application of a leveling screed. The function of this layer is the timely and correct removal of water from the roof.
For the manufacture of this layer, mineral plates or expanded polystyrene products are more suitable. These materials retain heat well and are not afraid of moisture.
This layer is important enough for the entire structure, it requires special attention. Vapor barrier is best done from mastic or self-adhesive film.
For screed, concrete is usually used in combination with a reinforced mesh.
This layer is responsible for dryness and strength. As a waterproofing, it is best to use special bituminous, bitumen-polymer, film materials reinforced with a synthetic base (roofing material).
You can cover this layer with a board, soil, gravel, clinker tiles, lawn. The main thing is to calculate and think over everything in advance.
The structures that stand on the top layer can be made from different materials. For example, gazebos made of wooden beams or swings made of metal piles. What and from what to build on the roof surface - everyone decides independently.
It is important to take into account all the features and weaknesses of each material. It is necessary to adhere to construction standards and take into account the weather conditions of the region.
Each part of the roof must be provided with a drainage funnel. A well-made exploited roof is one, the nodes of which are correctly assembled and combined. It often has a slight slope of its own, and is supplied with heat and waterproofing. When planning the device of such a roof, everything should be taken into account, starting from the quality of materials. With proper planning and approach to work, the operation of the roof can be 50 years. You don't have to constantly repair it.
A large number of factors negatively affect such a roof:
- solar radiation;
- wind load;
- rain and snow loads;
- temperature drop;
- other factors (pedestrians, cars);
- weight of materials.
The benefits of traditional roofing are clear. The sloping layer allows excess water to be removed from the surface. In addition, there is the possibility of using any material as thermal insulation. Traditional roofs are characterized by a lower cost of the materials used, which are distinguished by their resistance to combustion. The disadvantage of these roofs is a shorter service life, as well as a large weight of structures.
The advantages of an inverted roof are the longer service life of the materials used. Waterproofing and thermal insulation are better here. This allows the materials to be less exposed to various external influences and last longer. The weight of the structure is less. The cost of replacing one layer is low; to replace the thermal insulation, it is not necessary to dismantle the waterproofing layer. The roof reconstruction period is short.
Disadvantages of an inverted roof:
- do not use wadded thermal insulation materials;
- more cost of general installation and work.
- point loads on the structure.
- use of flammable materials.
We must not forget about the roof fencing, which is an important part of the roof arrangement. In its absence, the roof may simply not be accepted for operation according to SNIP standards. Attention should also be paid to determining the height of the fence. Height is included in the norms, it must be at least 1.2 meters in height, regardless of the number of storeys of the house.
Roof decoration is everyone's business. However, trying to make something special and interesting on your own roof is not difficult. It is not at all necessary to create a work of art, you can create a cozy corner for relaxation or active pursuits, without spending precious square meters of housing on it. It is important not to forget about vapor barrier, waterproofing, thermal insulation. When choosing materials, it should be borne in mind that each of them must comply with the general requirements for safety and protection against microorganisms.
Options for assembling structures on an exploited roof.
- A green area with specially designated areas for growing vegetables, fruits and berries (analogous to a small suburban area).
- Recreation and picnic area. You can install sun loungers, barbecue, gazebos, hang hammocks and enjoy a pleasant pastime.
- Setting up a greenhouse or conservatory will help provide fresh greens and vegetables.
- Installing a pool is costly, but well worth it.
- Sports field for badminton, mini-football, tennis or basketball.
- Opening of a cafe, restaurant, small cinema or gym on the roof of the shopping center.
- Arrangement of rooftop parking for cars or helicopters.
It is important not to forget about the proper quality of all materials used. It is desirable that each material is durable, with a long service life, resistant to sudden changes in temperature. It is necessary to pay attention to the climatic features of the country, which must not be forgotten. Therefore, it is advisable to think in advance about heating, protection from the cold of the operated roof.
To do this, you can make a canopy, glass walls around the perimeter, properly install gutters and snow plows. You can equip anything on the roof of your private house or shopping center: from the green zone to the helipad. It is not so difficult to equip a roof for operation. You can do this with your own hands or contact a professional.
For an overview of the structure of the operated roof, see the following video.