As a rule, the second floor of a country house turns into a warehouse of unnecessary things. It is better to get rid of unnecessary garbage, turn an abandoned attic into a comfortable penthouse, and each time climb up there by a beautiful solid staircase.
Where to begin?
The creation of a staircase can be entrusted to specialists, or you can be smart and design it yourself. You should think about where it is better to place the ladder, what materials will be needed for its manufacture. In terms of popularity in the construction of country houses, the tree is in the lead. The staircase can also be made of glass or metal.
The most common option is an L-shaped staircase with two flights located at 90 degrees in relation to each other and the intermediate platform.
The U-shape with two spans connected by one surface has impressive dimensions. The design of the flight staircase is simple but takes up a lot of space. The compact spiral staircase is equally suitable for large and small cottages. The ladder design on bowstrings provides reliable support for the steps from the bottom and from the sides. The project of the stairs on the bolts provides for fixing the steps to the vertical surface using metal fasteners.
Compliance with building codes will make the staircase functional, and the rise to the second floor will be safe.
The optimal dimensions for stairs of any shape are designed according to SNiP standards.
It is necessary to measure the part of the house where it is planned to place the future staircase, calculate its width, height and number of steps.
So, for convenient movement on the stairs, the optimal step width is 27-29 cm, and the height is 15-18 cm. You need to know that the step width is understood as the sum of two treads and one tread, equal to 60-65 cm. 3 and no more than 18 steps. They should all be the same size. If you plan to make them different in height, then the difference should not exceed 5 mm.
According to the rules of SNiP, the height of the railing should correspond to 90-110 cm, the distance between the balusters should be within 20 cm, and between the support posts - 150 cm. For small children, a railing with a height of 50-70 cm should be equipped. Ideally, the rails should withstand the load up to 100 kilograms. The slope angle of the stairs is on average from 30 to 45 degrees. This is the most comfortable, safe and convenient option for older people or families with small children.
Often, owners of country houses refuse to design stairs, fearing that they will "eat up" an already small space. In fact, such fears are unfounded. After all, a lot depends on the functions that the staircase will perform.
- If you plan to turn the attic into a full-fledged room, then it is not necessary to install a stationary structure. It is enough to attach a sliding ladder without railings to the hatch cover, which folds easily and does not take up much space.
- The staircase in the hall will organically fit into the overall composition of the interior, if you do not overdo it with "weighting" volumetric decor elements. She will give originality not only to the hallway, but to the entire room, visually making it higher.
- The staircase in the living room allows you to create the most harmonious interior design, combining all the elements of the room. It looks spectacular both near the wall and in the middle of the room.
The structure opposite the doorway zones the space and allows you to easily transfer furniture from floor to floor, and the stairs located behind the entrance significantly save space.
A number of styles will help make the staircase a highlight of the interior.
- The laconicism and straight forms of the railings with an unobtrusive pattern are striking features of the timeless classics.
- Antique scuffs, intricate patterns and complex shapes of handrails will impress fans of Provence.
- The simplicity of the entire structure with polished metal, glass or plastic will perfectly fit into the interior of high-tech style lovers.
- Well, the combination of shades of light and dark with laconic decor is ideal for fans of the American style.
The ultimate design goal is a staircase that combines reliability, practicality and style. At this stage, every detail is important: the dimensions of the room in which the structure will be located, and the installation site, and interfloor openings. You can draw up a project on paper, but it is better to use design programs that allow you to consider the future staircase from all sides.
To make the structure more rigid and durable, steps should be provided with risers. They will also come in handy if you plan to "adapt" the space under the stairs for a storage room or install bookshelves there.
The load-bearing parts of the structure require careful calculation. The most common options are strings and stringers. In the first case, special grooves are made in the bearing beams, into which the mortise steps are inserted. A ladder on bowstrings is made of wood or metal, it is easy to install, it is really possible to design it without steps, making it much easier.
Creating a staircase on kosoura is a more time-consuming process. For calculations, take the depth of the tread (the distance that is set aside for the leg when descending or climbing stairs), the height of the tread, as well as the length and height. Then a series of calculations are performed. By dividing the length of the structure by the depth of the tread, the number of steps is obtained, and the height of the stairs by the number of steps is the height of the tread. The Pythagorean theorem will help to calculate the length of the kosour: it is worth imagining that the entire staircase is a right-angled triangle. Moreover, the length and height of the stairs are the legs, and the beam is the hypotenuse.
The bolt connection does not require additional support and is fixed at two points. Metal rods or bolts attach the steps to each other, eliminating the unpleasant squeak when walking up the stairs.
The appearance of the future staircase should be planned: it can be a one-, two- and even three-flight structure with one or two interfloor areas. If a spiral staircase is being designed, then it is worth determining how the movement will occur: clockwise or counterclockwise. It should be decided what the steps will be: only straight or run-in, used in turning sections.
When designing a staircase, it is imperative to take into account the height and weight of the household, and when calculating the height, leave about 200 mm for a clearance above your head.
After creating a project, it must be considered from all sides, the necessary adjustments must be made. It remains to understand what else needs to be done to design a staircase with your own hands.
Materials and tools
There is a necessary minimum of tools that are used regardless of the type of stairs. In particular, this is a tape measure, a hammer, nails, screws, anchor bolts and other fastening material. And also a screwdriver and a drill, a level and a hacksaw for wood will come in handy. It is worth remembering about the building corner and the sander. And brushes, drying oil and varnish are also useful.
Today it is permissible to build stairs from glass and metal. They look stylish and modern, but making such a staircase yourself is not so easy. And for a country house, a tree is considered the best solution. To make a staircase, you will need first grade planed wood without thorns and deformations.
It is worth adhering to the following tips from experts:
- before starting work, the wood is dried, treated with a stain to give a deep color, and then a waterproof varnish is applied;
- for the construction of stairs, wood with a moisture content of no more than 10% is suitable. Such material is resistant to deformation, and the stairs from it will not creak.
Everyone chooses the type of wood for the stairs to their taste and wallet. The most budget options are pine and birch. Only pine is exposed to moisture, and there is no wood pattern on the birch board, which requires additional decoration. Ash is easy to work with, it is strong and bends well. Reliable and durable products are made from elite maple, oak and cedar wood. They do not absorb moisture, therefore they are good for indoor and outdoor buildings.
Regardless of the type of wood, each element of the staircase must correspond to certain dimensions. So, for a bowstring, the width of the board does not exceed 30 cm, and the thickness is 6 cm.The thickness of the board for steps is 4 cm, for risers - 2.5 cm.
Sequence of work
- Construction begins with the preparation of the premises and the necessary spare parts. These are bowstrings or consors made of boards without defects, polished steps with processed cuts, as well as smooth railings and balusters.
- Then it is necessary to install supporting structures: a central post for a spiral or a structure with bowstrings or consors for a marching staircase.
- After that, they begin to install the steps. They are attached with steel corners to the supports from the bottom up. You shouldn't spare any fasteners or glue.
- Next, the fence is installed, which begins with the upper and lower balusters. A thread is pulled between them and all the rest are fixed.
- After that, proceed to the installation of sanded and non-slip railings.
- The final stage of construction is grinding the joints of the assembled stairs. Using special tools, you should give the structure an interesting shade or emphasize the natural beauty of the tree. And at this stage, the tree is treated from small pests and paint and varnish work is carried out.
For information on how to make a wooden staircase with your own hands, see the next video.
Helpful tips from the pros
When creating a staircase to the second floor in a private house, experts recommend following a few tips.
- When installing steps, it is worth using thin polymer sheets. This will prevent the wood surfaces from rubbing against each other and will prevent unpleasant squeaking.
- Curved railings made of glued wood look original on the spiral staircase. To bend the railing, soak the wood in boiling water, shape it and let it dry.
- The combined staircase with a metal frame and wooden elements is durable, wear-resistant, capable of withstanding colossal loads. At the same time, it is comfortable for moving all the inhabitants of the house, and also an elegant design will add sophistication to any interior.
- Laminate can be used as a finishing material for stairs. This coating is almost indistinguishable from wood, it does not leave scratches. Laminate is highly refractory, does not need additional processing and does not require special maintenance.
- Illumination along the entire flight of stairs will become a highlight of the interior and make the staircase an elegant and stylish addition to the living space. To illuminate stairs, spotlights are used built into the wall or in risers, LED strips or wall sconces.
Ready examples for inspiration
- A wooden spiral staircase from the first to the second floor attracts attention with its coziness and comfort. The light, elegant design does not take up much space, and between it and the wall there are open shelves with flowers and little things dear to the heart.
- An L-shaped staircase against a wooden wall is a practical and stylish choice. Thanks to the risers, the owners of the house placed the desk directly under the staircase, and the paintings on the walls pleasantly enliven the interior. The staircase looks simple and concise.
- Combined staircase options with wooden treads and metal railings create a stylish, modern interior.
- Spot lighting of risers is an exquisite decoration of the stairs. The ceiling is decorated in a pale pink color. The balusters are made in the form of a glass surface and are complemented by curved railings. And all together creates a unique fabulous atmosphere.
- The LED strip located at the top of the risers will make it safe to use the stairs in the dark and give it a "floating" look.
- Glass, wood, metal and nothing more - this is what fans of high-tech style with a large area of a private house need.
- A metal spiral staircase to the second floor in a small house is a great solution. It is located in the corner, therefore it does not “eat up” the space, but the bright pink color favorably sets it off against the background of white walls.