Building a house is a laborious and costly business. It is not safe to save on materials for walls and roofs. The development of the project of the main communications and the entire premises is a responsible business, it will also not be possible to profit from it. All that remains is the design and installation of the roof.
If you want to make a project for the roof of your future home on your own, it is worth considering a number of nuances. The main function of the roof is to isolate the space from precipitation, wind, heat loss and sound.
Today, modern construction involves mainly the use of two types of roofs - flat and pitched.
The most popular are pitched roofs due to a number of features, namely:
- have perfect protection from precipitation, preventing them from lingering on the surface;
- have a presentable appearance;
- more possibilities of using the space under the roof.
There are quite a few roofing variations. Its choice is determined not only by aesthetic considerations and the concept of the building, but also by the presence of an attic, an attic or their absence, the location of chimneys, ventilation ducts inside the room, the need to place additional elements, such as snow retention, overlapping the courtyard, porch, winter garden, greenhouse.
It is also worth paying attention to the possibility of placing a recreation area or a transparent ceiling, a small garden or a swimming pool on a flat roof. Do not forget about the wind rose, the amount of precipitation in this particular area, the temperature regime throughout the year.
There are several criteria by which you can build the range of types of roofs for a house.
By the angle of inclination of the surface, the roof is:
By the number of rays:
- gable (with two slopes, half-hip);
- multi-slope (hip, hip, broken - with a beveled surface).
With respect to the axis of symmetry, the roof can be:
By material type:
- particular cases of using materials.
Recommendations for choosing a shape
The roof is not only a field for design experiments, but also one of the main structural elements of the entire project, therefore, the choice of its shape and design should be taken seriously. There are several factors to consider.
For flat roofs
Most often, such roofs are usually placed on buildings in the southern regions, which are characterized by a long period of heat and a relatively low level of precipitation. In addition, this version of the roof shape is usually preferable for urban buildings or houses located in a limited space of a summer cottage.
Overlapping the house in this interpretation allows you to maximize the use of the entire building area by placing a patio or a small courtyard on the roof.
For pitched roofs
There are several basic options for pitched roofs.
- Attic (ventilated, unventilated). The load-bearing elements of this structure also serve as floors for the upper floor of the building.
- Attic roofs contain a ceiling that separates the attic space from the living area of the house.
When choosing a roof shape, it is worthwhile to dwell on each type in more detail.
- Shed. This type of shelter is characterized by an angle of inclination of 20-30 degrees. This species is extremely rare. Firstly, from an aesthetic point of view, it is far from the most spectacular, and secondly, the load from precipitation on the load-bearing elements of the building is much higher than on other structural options. Often, such a roof is placed on outbuildings or on annexes to the main building.
- Gable. The slope of the roof planes usually ranges from 25 to 45 degrees. This model is also quite simple in execution and less effective than other options, but it has a number of advantages, ranging from low requirements for the choice of floor material and ending with the ease of mounting the drainage system
- Hip. It includes four planes, is distributed mainly in warm regions and is characterized by the absence of frontal elements. Dormer windows are most often placed at the intersection of the hip structure and the ridge beam. This roof project is already much more complicated than that of the gable version, and it looks more attractive.
- Multi-pliers. There are a huge number of options for the execution of multi-gable roofs, depending on the number and size of gables. This interpretation of ceilings is quite complex and requires certain knowledge and skills from the installer.
- Mansard room. Its angle of inclination is 45-60 degrees at the base and 25-35 degrees in the ceiling of the project. The attic of the house provides the possibility of placing additional living space under its space. The overall geometry of the roof is quite complex in execution, however, its spectacular appearance, style and functionality cover all conceivable disadvantages. Whether it is the presence of "dead" zones, suitable only for the placement of cabinets and shelves, or the problematic installation of the project.
- Shatrovaya. This option is characterized by the presence of 4–8 planes, which in their classical form resemble a pyramid. The main plus is the remarkable aerodynamics. Such a roof is ideal for a home located in an area with strong and gusty winds. The main disadvantage is the small cubic capacity of the under-roof space, the complexity of calculations and installation.
- Dome. It is not necessarily a semicircular, nearly spherical surface of the ceiling overhead, called a geodesic. Although today this version is acquiring an increasing army of fans, there are also other options for a domed roof - these are arched (using arched rafters) and conical. Dome roofing provides the space with the maximum percentage of useful use, optimal provision of the room with natural light, excludes the retention and accumulation of precipitation on its surface, has greater strength with less weight relative to other types of roofing.
- Conical. This variation of the roof is also quite effective. It can be used as separate decorative elements. This type is often combined with domed roofing versions.
In areas with strong winds, you should not install a roof that is too high with a large surface and an angle of inclination. In a region characterized by heavy rainfall, you should not opt for a flat roof or a complex model with many interior corners.
A beautiful combined roof will combine several design options, however, from the point of view of installation and operation, such a roof will be extremely finicky and complex.
The erection of a roof is one of the most important points in the construction of the entire building, the result of which determines both the aesthetics of the project and the provision of the premises with protection from external phenomena. The roof design process is quite time consuming. It is worth contacting an experienced specialist or stock up on a baggage of knowledge and skills on your own.
You can take on such a task when building one-story houses, buildings with simple roof variations, or when designing an object with a simple roof geometry, for example, a house with a terrace or an unusual hut in which a gable roof descends to the ground.
At the beginning of the design, it is necessary to understand the structural features of the roof, highlight the main elements and connections in order to correctly build the project and select the materials for its implementation.
- decide on the modification of the roof and its future functional purpose;
- select the most suitable materials;
- draw up a visual sketch with a drawing of color accents;
- work out all the important details of the scheme;
- calculate wind and snow loads, load on the main units, elements and materials during precipitation and other weather events;
- calculate the size and shape of the rafter system, its structure;
- develop a step-by-step work plan;
- to develop drawings of the roof with a drawing of all components;
- make a final estimate.
A single roof slope is the easiest and cheapest shelter option. The peculiarity is that its only plane rests on load-bearing walls of various heights. Its disadvantages are that it is almost impossible to locate the attic space as such under its cover, let alone the attic. And for designers, it does not carry any value due to the simplicity of its forms, however, it is quite suitable for placement on outbuildings, terraces and small country houses.
The advantages are as follows:
- economical use of roofing and rafter materials;
- ease of installation, available to anyone;
- low windage;
- ease of installation of the drainage system.
Their advantages are that they look impressive, they are able to increase the area of premises without increasing the total building space, they are able to implement the most daring interior designs. There is a possibility of increasing the premises of an already inhabited house. They are characterized by a short construction time and a minimal budget.
- requires special roof windows or complicating the geometry of the roof;
- it is necessary to install forced ventilation in the attic;
- there is a need to organize "dead" zones in storage or household purposes.
The attic provides the most favorable conditions for the elements of the roof, facilitates access to them. This type of room is characterized by an increased volume of air and natural light, an optimal layout of the room and an easy-to-install shape of the roof.
This option is the most resistant to precipitation. It is characterized by the presence of a large volume of usable area. When using it, there are less costs for building materials, as well as savings on heating costs. Another undeniable advantage is originality.
You can calculate the size of the surface coverage area when drawing up a construction estimate. It is recommended to do this to accurately calculate the amount of purchased material.
- Calculation of the area of a shed roof. The surface of the roof in this case is a simple rectangle, its area will be calculated by multiplying the length of the sides of its walls (the width of the house is multiplied with the length). Do not forget to increase the value of the length of the house by twice the length of the overhangs, which are pre-multiplied by the length of the rafter leg.
- Calculation of the gable roof area. Ideally, each of the roof slopes is the same rectangle, so you need to calculate the area of one roof sheet and multiply the resulting value by two. In this variant, it is necessary to add double the length of the overhang along the pediment to the length of the house. To the length of the rafter leg, you need to add the length of the overhang along the eaves. The resulting values must be multiplied. And remember to double to get the size of the entire roof.
- Calculation of the area of a complex roof. There is no single formula for calculating the area of a complex shape, so the entire roof surface should be divided into simple geometric shapes, calculate the area of each of them and add them all together. Most often, it is customary to divide the roof into rectangles or triangles, the area of which is calculated as the product of the length of the base and the height, all of this, divided in half. You can also highlight the trapezoid.
The roof area will differ dramatically for different types of shelter. For example, for a house of 9x12 m, the area of a pitched roof is 108 sq. m, gable - 144 sq. m, tent - 164 sq. m, attic room - 150 sq. m.
Of course, all calculations are approximate, because there are parameters such as the angle of the slope, the height to the ridge, and others, but, according to rough calculations, it is quite possible to navigate in your preference to a particular type of roof. For the calculation, you can use specialized programs or online calculators.
Before starting any work, it is very important to correctly draw up a plan for all stages of work, starting with the design, sequence of steps and ending with the calculation of materials and components for the installation of a covered surface.
When creating a roof project, the following must be considered and calculated:
- the shape of the building, load-bearing walls, the location of chimneys, ventilation ducts of the room;
- the angle of inclination of the roof and the number of materials and components appropriate for its installation;
- the height of the ridge, calculated by the following method: the width of the building span is divided in half and multiplied by a relative indicator that is equal to:
- 0.08 at an angle of inclination equal to 5%;
- 0.17 at an angle of 10%;
- 0.26 at an angle of 15%;
- 0.36 at an angle of 20%;
- 0.47 at an angle of 25%;
- 0.59 at an angle of 30%;
- 0.79 at an angle of 35%;
- 0.86 at an angle of 40%;
- 1.00 at 45% angle;
- wind load:
- 35 kg per square meter with a slope of less than 30%;
- add additional elements of the auxiliary structure when the slope is more than 30%;
- snow load:
- 180 kg per cubic meter with a slope of less than 60%.
To independently make a roof project for a house, you should follow several recommendations from specialists.
- The quality of materials and workmanship of the roof project itself will directly affect the cost efficiency of indoor heating.
- If the slope of the roof is less than 25%, then it is possible to use materials in rolls or asbestos cement. If 12–25%, then the installation of materials in one layer is allowed. If the slope is more than 33%, then different types of tiles are used.
- The height and volume of the under-roof space depends on the angle of inclination of the roof and the number of installed slopes, while the ceiling height can be multi-level to achieve more space.
- In order to properly design a roof, one must not forget about the ventilation system. Its absence is fraught with damage to the material from which the elements of the mounted roof will be made.
When installing thermal insulation, do not forget that air must freely penetrate between the thermal insulation and waterproofing layer, and the air channel must be at least 20 mm.
For information on how to build a gable roof for a private house, see this explanatory step-by-step video.