One of the most beautiful is the orchid flower. But in order to admire the flowering for several months, you need to know about care, diseases and harmful insects that attack all varieties of orchids. Such knowledge is useful not only for beginners. Even venerable flower growers who have been growing these beauties for a long time may have problems. For example, spots of a different nature appeared on the leaves, the flowers became small, gray rot or fusarium was overtaken.
To avoid this, you need to study all the advice of experts on agricultural technology, pests and infections that can provoke the drying out or even death of your flowering pet. It is even more important to establish the correct diagnosis of the dysfunctional state of the orchid.
Follow the advice of the experts below, and your pets will delight you with beautiful, lush and long flowering.
Orchid diseases and their description
Orchids are very afraid of long periods of wet, rainy and cool weather. As a result of such conditions, the fungal environment multiplies, the flower is affected by black rot, dries up. If you ignore the appearance of this infection, then the disease affects the entire plant, and then spreads to neighboring ones. Thus, you can lose not only one copy, but the entire collection. The fungus, due to which this disease appears, lives only in an environment with high humidity, consists of the smallest zoospores that can move independently in the aquatic environment. If this liquid enters the surface of the leaf, then the spores easily penetrate into the deep layers of the tissue.
The disease enters the next stage - damage to the vegetative part. Visible signs of the disease appear. On the leaves, areas with watery, transparent, small spots are visible. In the next stage, they become larger, changing their color to black. When orchid seedlings are damaged by black rot, the disease transforms into a black leg, which leads to the inevitable death of the flower. In adult plants, damage to pseudobulbs, roots and leaves is possible. Most often, infection occurs on young leaves, then moves along the plant from top to bottom, reaching the very root. Visual signs: yellowing of leaves in the infected area. When palpating, the site of infection is soft, when pressed, it oozes.
The causes of black rot can be:
- untreated water during irrigation;
- not sterilized pot when transplanting a plant;
- drops of liquid, "migrated" from diseased flowers.
- exclude waterlogging of the soil;
- ensure constant air circulation in the room, for quick drying of the substrate after watering;
- use of fertilizers with a high calcium content in the spring.
How to deal with it.
To exclude the spread of an already begun disease at home, it is necessary to cut off the diseased part of the plant with the capture of a small surface of healthy tissue. The procedure can be carried out using a sterile scalpel or a sharp knife. If pseudobulbs are infected, remove all diseased ones. If the root is damaged, remove little by little until you see healthy tissue.
For quick drying and scarring of the cut, place the plant in a well-ventilated room. Treat the remaining healthy part of the orchid with a fungicide, for example, Maxim.
Visible on orchid flowers with the naked eye. It is found on both adults and young plants. Florists often purchase infected plants in flower shops and when ordering through an online store. Orchids can become infected not only from their "counterparts", but also from flowers of other species, for example, azaleas, begonias, cactus, camellias, African violets, etc. The causes of infection with gray rot can be:
- lack of air circulation in the room;
- damp cold weather for a long time;
- high air humidity.
It manifests itself in the form of brown small spots of irregular shape, outwardly resembling mold. The most commonly exposed varieties are Cattleya and Phalaenopsis. As the infection progresses, the spots become larger, a pale pink halo forms around, and the orchid withers. On plants that reach the last stage of the disease, these spots merge, on them you can clearly see mycelium (membranous spores of the fungus).
- maintaining the required air humidity;
- exclusion of the neighborhood of healthy and diseased plants;
- ensuring timely watering;
- immediate removal of dying parts, which are a favorable environment for the spread of infection;
- exclude the ingress of water on the flowers and the plant itself during watering, watering in the morning;
- quarantine new plants.
Unlike black rot, gray rot is not as dangerous. To revive the plant, you need to take several measures: cut and dispose of the infected plants, place the pot for 3-4 days in a room with low humidity and good ventilation.
Fungal infection. Parts of an orchid that get infected: the part of the stem adjacent to the roots, the root system, spore-infested seed, seedlings of young plants.
- Signs of stage 1: reddening of the roots, the appearance of white-pink particles on the root part and on the stems, the appearance of constrictions on the roots.
- Signs of stage 2: a change in the color of the roots from red to dark red, the release of toxins, clogging of the water passages, rotting of the root part.
- Signs of stage 3: the cell layer of the infected areas dies, the stem becomes thinner, the leaves turn yellow, and the entire plant dehydrates. This leads to complete wilting, the orchid dies.
An infected plant is dangerous to nearby flowers, because fungal spores are transmitted by air and through untreated tools.
Care errors that contribute to fusarium infection and spread:
- stagnation of excess moisture during watering;
- lack of air circulation in the room;
- violation of the rules for plant transplanting, leading to damage to the roots;
- high content of peat, mineral salts and foam in the soil.
How to deal with it.
- Isolate the infected flower in a separate room.
- Remove from the pot, rinse with water at room temperature.
- Cut off diseased areas.
- Treat fresh sections with activated charcoal or other antiseptic.
- Dry the plant.
- Treat the entire vegetative part of the plant with a fungicidal preparation. Transplant the flower into an old, pre-treated pot or use a new one.
To cure an orchid, experts advise using Fundazol. Take 1 gram of the product and dilute it in 1 liter of water. Repeat the treatment with the prepared solution three times, with repetition after 10 days. The duration of the quarantine of the disinfected flower is 4 weeks.
- Regular loosening.
- Maintaining the required humidity by airing the room.
- Do not allow the temperature to drop below 14 degrees Celsius.
- Each plant transplant must be accompanied by a disinfectant treatment.
- Avoid exceeding the content of foam and peat in the substrate by more than 20%.
- Provide the necessary illumination.
- Organize the correct watering: in the summer 1 time in 5 days, in the winter - 1 time in 10 days. Additionally, spraying with warm water in the morning.
- Transplant the orchid at least once every 10 months to avoid excessive soil salinity.
- Regular treatment with "Fitolavin" preparation at a concentration of 2 milliliters per 1 liter of water by immersion, watering or spraying.
Infection of tropical origin. It became famous in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century. The first victims were pumpkins and cucumbers on the land plots of Novgorod. In modern areas it appears in the second half of summer, rose hips, gooseberries and all pumpkin seeds are more often affected. In order for indoor orchids to become infected and wilted with anthracnose, you need to create "favorable" conditions for this:
- increase the air temperature in the room to 27 degrees Celsius, and make the humidity 100 percent;
- leave orchids outside in the second half of summer, when the "painful" fog begins.
Leaves, shoots and tuberidia (ground false parts of the bulb) are more often infected. The orchid does not grow. Fungal pycnidia are formed in the form of brown spots with small black dots, ranging in size from 2 to 10 millimeters. They are clearly visible on the surface of the leaves and trunk, arranged in the form of a mosaic. Orchid varieties most often suffer: stangopea, cattleya, cymbidium, depdrobium.
To save the plant, take such measures as:
- cut off the infected leaf;
- reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers;
- spray with "Fundazol" (solution concentration 0.2%) or copper oxychloride (concentration - 0.5%) three times 1 time in 10 days.
Onset of the disease: leaves, tuberidia are affected, roots rot. The diseased parts of the plant first soften, then turn brown. The penetration of infectious agents occurs through the roots, if they are damaged. The most common varieties are: odotonia, miltonia, wande, papiopedilgome, cymbidium.
Causes of occurrence:
- waterlogged substrate;
- loss of soil air permeability as a result of the lack of loosening;
- fertilizing with fertilizers exceeding the norms of nutrients;
- pests that accumulate in the root system.
External signs: the roots of a healthy plant are gray in color with a whitish coating; after watering, they instantly acquire a greenish tint. Then they soften, become watery, the upper layers are separated, exposing the central part. The color of the outer layer of the roots is from brown to black-brown.
If only the tips of the roots have dried up, do not be alarmed - this is a common burn that forms with excessive doses of fertilizers.
Bacterial infection most often overtakes shoots and leaves on young plants. It manifests itself in the form of spots of a watery character. Color from light to dark brown. The disease progresses rapidly, the spots grow. If the stem part of the orchid is sick, the plant completely dies. Varieties are more often exposed: cymbidium, phalaenopsis, pafiopedilum.
How to treat: with minimal damage - excision of the affected areas with a sharp knife to the healthy part. Processing of fresh sections with a copper-containing preparation. With extensive damage, it is usually not possible to save the orchid. The only method is disposal to prevent contamination of neighboring plants.
It occurs as a result of the vital activity of pests such as scale insects, aphids or worms. After insects, traces remain in the form of a liquid that clogs the mouth. As a result, photosynthesis is disrupted, and a fungal infection develops.
Treatment. Unlike the above-described diseases, it is quite complex. For 4-6 days, you need to rinse the leaves to kill most of the insects. The deformed and damaged parts of the plant are cut off. At the next stage, insecticidal agents are used, for example, "Hom", "Ridomil" or "Topsin M". It is processed twice with an interval of 10 days.
Fungal infection. Imported from Cuba. Orchid is ill with rust very rarely, only a few cases are known. Symptoms:
- the upper surface of the leaves is covered with yellow spots;
- when viewing the spots in an enlarged form, small black dots are observed;
- on the underside of the leaf there are spots in the form of growths that resemble red warts.
- excess of humidity standards in the room and soil;
- non-compliance with the quarantine regime;
- increased content of humus and peat in the substrate;
- close location of "dangerous" plants under the window, for example, raspberries, rose hips, junipers.
Treatment. At the initial stage, the drug "Hom" will help: you need to dilute 3 grams of the substance in 1 liter of water, spray the plant. At advanced stages use "Topaz" or "Strobi": dilute 2 grams of the drug in 2 liters of water, carry out the treatment by spraying and watering.
Treatment will only be effective when not only infected plants are treated, but also healthy ones.
Orchid viral diseases
- Cymbidium mosaic - considered a little-studied orchid virus, it is extremely rare on hybrid varieties. On the leaves, stains are formed in the form of double rhombuses, ovals or rings.
- The annular monoglossum virus - on different varieties manifests itself in different ways, it depends on the structure of the tissue of the leaf blade. If the feature of the orchid is thin leaves, then the ring virus is expressed in the manifestation of double rings, which darken after a few months. When pressed, the bezel is pressed in, the integrity of the center is not compromised. On varieties with dense thick leaves, irregular strokes and lines are formed, which then close in a diamond shape.
- Phalaenopsis chlorosis - discovered relatively recently, in 2004. Affects Cattleya, Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium. It manifests itself in the form of chlorosis, when the formation of chlorophyll in plant cells is disrupted. Deficiency of photosynthesis is visible on the surface of the leaves with yellow or pinkish spots, which become whitish over time.
Viral diseases are little studied by specialists, there are more than 50 types, the most common are listed above, so it is extremely important to observe preventive measures.
- Plants, especially those brought from Asian regions, are quarantined (for 2-3 months).
- In their permanent place of residence, flowers are placed on wooden, plastic or metal trellises, at a distance of at least 20-30 cm from each other. In this way, the transfer of viral infection from other plants can be excluded.
- To disinfect the planting containers for reuse with a preparation of copper sulfate with a concentration of 1.5%.
- Timely destroy weeds if orchids are placed in greenhouses and greenhouses.
Often, for some unknown reason, sticky leaves appear on the orchid. In another way, this phenomenon is called transpiration. Visually, you can see water drops on the leaves, sticky and sugary when touched.
Causes of occurrence:
- the peculiarity of some varieties to emit sweet sticky drops to attract insects;
- vital activity of pests such as whitefly, scale insects, worms;
- poor living conditions: waterlogged air, excessive watering, large doses of fertilizers.
How to deal with them.
Treat sticky spots depending on the cause. If harmful insects appear, treat with an insecticide, for example, with Aktara mixed with Zircon or Epin.
If the conditions of detention are violated, then their treatment will consist in regulating irrigation, air humidity and doses of fertilizers applied.
At home, all chemicals can be replaced with folk remedies. As a rule, they are used in the initial stages of the disease. Treatment will cost you much less, side effects from folk remedies have not been identified.
With fungal diseases.
- In 10 liters of water heated to 30 degrees, 1 kg of ash is dissolved. Insist 5 days, stirring regularly. Then liquid laundry soap is added to the strained liquid. By spraying, the infected plant is treated three times every 1 day.
- Milk serum. Diluted with water in a ratio of 1 to 10. Plants are sprayed once every 2 weeks for prophylaxis.
With powdery mildew.
- Potassium permanganate. A solution is prepared from 2 grams of potassium permanganate and 10 liters of water. Plants are sprayed every 5 days. Carry out three treatments.
- Field horsetail. Place 100 grams of freshly harvested horsetail in 1 liter of water, leave in a closed container for a day. Then it is filtered and heated without boiling. It turns out a medicinal ointment. It is cooled and diluted with water in a ratio of 1 to 5. It is used for prophylaxis and treatment. The ready-made solution can be used for a week.
- Fundazol. Fungicidal drug with a wide spectrum of action, is able to penetrate into the deep layers of tissue, affecting the fungus, regardless of its location. Forms of release in the form of suspension and powder. Apply in case of infection: powdery mildew, fusarium, root, gray and black rot. Apply strictly according to the instructions: dilute 1 gram of the drug in 1 liter of warm water, stir thoroughly. Treatment is carried out by immersion, spraying or watering. Repeat treatment after 14 days. If the dosage of "Fundazol" is violated, problems may arise in the form of: cessation of flowering, inhibition of growth and chemical burns.
- Fitolavin. It is a broad-spectrum antibiotic. The impact is medium. More used as a preventive drug. A huge advantage of "Fitolafin" is its safe impact on the world around it: insects, people and animals. Large farms use the product in large cans (volume 1, 2, 5 liters). Private amateur flower growers use this antibiotic in ampoules (volume from 2 to 100 milliliters). It can be used for diseases: powdery mildew, bacterial rot, wilting of various nature. For the treatment of orchids, 2 ml of the drug is diluted in 1 liter of water. They are processed by immersion, watering, spraying or soaking in solution.
- "Maksim". It is a fungicide. It is recommended to use the Maxim drug to process seed material and tubers, as well as to disinfect the substrate for planting orchids. The advantage of the product is the ability to create a film that does not allow pathogens to penetrate the surface of the plant, but healthy air and moisture easily penetrate the protective shell. Feature: the preparation contains a pink contrast agent, which allows you to control the quality of processing. The disadvantage is the high cost (from 350 rubles and more).
Used for various types of mold and rot. Apply in the same way as Fitolavin.
Most orchids are epiphytic (growing on other plants), not to be confused with parasites, as they do not absorb nutrients from another plant. Based on this, the flowers require special care. Orchids are capricious creatures, it is not easy to achieve long and lush flowering. But if you adhere to the correct agricultural technology, then beautiful flowers will not keep you waiting long.
A window sill with diffused light, west or east side, is suitable for location. An aquarium is also suitable as a permanent place of residence, in which the necessary humidity and temperature are created. If the place is poorly lit, then backlighting is needed. Luminescent or phytolamps, which are located at a distance of 30 cm from the highest point of the plant, are suitable. Comfortable time for additional lighting - from 8 to 20 hours. You can determine whether your flower receives enough light by its appearance:
- in case of excess, internodes are shortened, the leaves are either stretched up or too lowered;
- with a deficiency, the leaves become smaller, the internodes become thin and very long.
The temperature regime depends on the type of orchid.
Night temperature in degrees Celsius
Daytime temperature in degrees Celsius
For watering, orchids prefer settled water at room temperature, and it is better to spray it with distilled or melt water. Watering is often combined with feeding.
In natural conditions, plants prefer a humid habitat. Therefore, we create a similar regime indoors using aquariums, water terrariums and air humidifiers.
Experienced florists who grow orchids of various types and varieties have their own secrets. Such life hacks are especially useful for lovers of entry-level orchids.
- The orchid is naughty, that is, it does not hold and falls out of the pot. Just tie it to the support or the pot itself. After a couple of weeks, the garter can be removed, since the plant itself will catch in the substrate with its roots. Her position will become stable.
- It is better to plant the plant in a perforated pot. This will allow excess moisture to evaporate faster and penetrate through the smallest openings of the air roots. The inner pot must be transparent so that deviations in the development of the orchid can be noticed in time.
- To improve the composition of the soil, you can add perlite, vermiculite, peat or coconut chips to it. When growing terrestrial species, you need to use a weighted substrate. When growing epiphytes, it is light.
- Watering is best done by immersion. It takes 30 minutes for the plants to drink. It is better to under-water than over-pour. Orchids love showers. Put the bath and water from the shower for several minutes, while the water temperature should not exceed 40 degrees Celsius. When watering, do not leave liquid in the axils of the leaves, otherwise the plant will rot and die. Ordinary paper napkins absorb excess water well.
In hot weather, it is imperative to spray with boiled water at room temperature.
In the next video you will find more information on orchid diseases and how to treat them.